Sunday, September 5, 2010

MODUL OF GENERAL ENGLISH

Oxford University Press
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Oxford is trade mark of Oxford University Press.

ISBN 0 19 432942 9 (low-priced edited)

© Original edited: Cornelsen &
Oxford University Press GmbH, Berlin 1980
© This edition: Oxford University Press. Oxford 1982

First published 1982
Low-price edited first published 1983

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electric, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press.

This book is sold subject to the condition that is small not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is publisher and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser.

A Basic English Grammar is published by arrangement with Cornelsen & Oxford University Press GmbH. It is an adaption of A Grammar of Spoken English by Ronald Mackin and John Eastwood which was first published in Germany by Cornelsen & Oxford University Press GmbH, Berlin in 1980.

A Basic English Grammar is not for sale in West Germany, West Berlin, Austria or Switzeland.

Typeset in Linotron 202 Helvetica by Promenade Graphics Limited, Cheltenham, England.

Printed in Hong Kong

















































Contents

Page
4 Introduction
Key to phonetic symbols

5 1 Word order
8 2 Verb: Talking about the present
13 3 Verb: Talking about the past
22 4 Verbs: Talking about the future
26 5 Verbs: be, have and do
30 6 Verbs: The imperative and let’s
31 7 Modal verbs
41 8 Negatives, questions and tags
44 9 Replacing words and leaving out words
46 10 The passive
50 11 if-clauses
52 12 Reported speech
56 13 Tenses in sub clauses
57 14 The infinitive
61 15 The –ing form (verbal noun)
63 16 The infinitive and the –ing form
65 17 The –ing form and the –ed form
(participles)
67 18 Nouns
73 19 The articles: a/an and the
78 20 Pronouns and quantifiers
90 21 Question word
93 22 Relative clauses
98 23 Adjectives
102 24 Adverbs
112 25 Prepositions









Page
116 26 Verbs with adverbs and prepositions
118 27 Conjunctions and other linking words
123 28 Emphasis
125 29 Communication: Starting and finishing a conversation; being friendly
128 30 Communication: Information, opinions and ideas
131 31 Communication: Telling and asking people to do things
134 32 Communication: Decisions and intentions
135 33 Communication: Offers and invitations
136 34 Communication: Feelings
139 35 Communication: Right and wrong
140 36 Number, money etc
144 37 Word-building
147 38 The pronunciation and spelling of endings
149 39 Punctuation
152 40 List of common irregular verbs

153 Glossary
156 Index



















Introduction

A Basic English Graham is a reference book for student of English as a foreign language. It covers the grammatical structures and communicative functions that are generally taught in the first three or four years of English. It is therefore suitable for students up to an intermediate level.

The language described is contemporary standard British English. Some British-American differences are also included. The examples are mostly of everyday spoken English, although a smaller number are typical of formal or written style. Where necessary, usage are marked as informal/formal or as spoken/writer.

The notes give basic information on form and use as simply as possible. The example and notes are numbered whenever the notes refer to individual examples: note 1 refers to example 1, and so on.

Technical terms have been kept to a minimum, and there is a glossary of those used. There is also a full index.












Key the phonetic symbols

i: see u good ai by
I big u: soon au how
e get ^ bus )I boy
ae man 3: third io near
a: bath e away ea fair
o top eu go

p pen f fine h help
b book v very m mine
t time o think n new
d dog o that n long
k can s say l last
g game z zoo r room
tf cheap f shop j yes
d3 job 3 meansure w water



(r) The sound [r] is used before a following vowel,
‘ The next syllable is stressed, e.g. away [a’we].
~ The next word has a falling intonation.
~ The next word has a rising intonation.












1 Word order

1.1 Positive statements

1. Subject Verb phrase
Two girls were talking.
My foot hurts.

2. Subject Verb phrase Object
We had a marvelous holiday.
I can see something.

3. Subject Verb phrase Complement
Margaret is very nice.
She seems a nice person.

4. Subject Verb phrase Adverb phrase
Your friend is over there.
The money was on the table.


1.2 Adverbs and adverb phrases

Two girls were talking loudly.
Last year we had a marvelous holiday in Italy.
Margaret is always very nice.
The money was certainly on the table this morning.















The word order in a statement is
1. Subject + verb phrase
2. Subject + verb phrase + object 1.4
3. Subject + verb phrase + complement 1.5
4. Subject + verb phrase + adverb phrase














We can add one or more adverbs or adverb phrases to the four sentence types in 1.1. Adverbs and adverb phrase can come at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a sentence. There are different rules for the different types of adverbs. 24.4









1.3 Other kinds of sentence

1. Negative statements
This apple isn’t very nice.
The letter has not arrived.
I don’t like that color.
It must not happen again.

2. Questions
Where are my keys?
What have you got there?
Did the game start on time?
Will Helen be at the meeting?

3. The imperative
Wait here.
Don’t touch anything.

4. Exclamations
What a beautiful day!
How stupid!


1.4 Direct and indirect objects

1. Subject Verb Indirect object Direct object
Aunt Jane gave Sarah a record.
She sent Peter a book.

2. Subject Verb Direct object Indirect object
Aunt Jane gave the record to Sarah.
She sent the book to Peter.









1. In a negative statement we put n’t/not after be, have, do or a modal verb. 8.1
2. In a question we put be, have, do or a modal verb before the subject. 8.2
Questions can be with or without a question word, e.g. where, what. 21.1
3. For the imperative 6.1
4. For exclamation 34.1















1. The indirect object without to comes before the direct object.
2. The indirect object with to comes after the direct object.

The direct object is the thing or person to which something happens. The indirect object is the person who receives something. 18.3 direct and indirect objects





1.5 Types of complement

1. Subject Verb phrase Complement
I was ill.
That man is Mac.

2. Subject Verb phrase Object Complement
The food made me ill.
Everyone call him Mac.


1.6 Sub clauses whit when, if, because etc.

(Sub clause) Main clause (Sub clause)
1. When I’ve finished, I’ll make a cup of coffee.
If it’s nice, we can go out.
2. We can go out if it’s nice.
I bought the coat because it was cheap.

A sentence can have one or more clauses. A sub clause can come either
1. Before the main clause or
2. After the main clause.
A sub clause begins with a conjunction, e.g.
when, if, because, after. The word order after the conjunction is the same as in a main clause, e.g. I’ve finished, it’s nice.
For reported clauses and relative clauses 27.1
For that-clauses 27.3











1. The subject complement is used to describe the subject.
2. The object complement is used to describe the object.
































2 Verbs: Talking about the present

2.1 The present tense of be

I’m tired. I’m not very fit.
Am I fat? ~ Yes, you are.
You’re in good time. You aren’t late.
Are you ready? ~ No, I’m not.
Peter is at home, but Judy isn’t here today.
Is he in bed? ~ No, he’s in the bath.
Is she out? ~ Yes, she is.
It’s July, but isn’t very hot.
When is concert? ~ On Tuesday.
We’re on holiday. We aren’t here for long.
Are we in this photo? ~ No, we aren’t.
Those people are students. They aren’t doctors.
Are they French? ~ Yes, I thing they are.







2.2 The present tense of have (got)

1. have got
I’ve got an envelope, but I haven’t got a stamp.
Have you got a pen? ~ Yes, I have.
Andrew has got a car, but his sister hasn’t.
What’s the baby got in his mount?
Has Susan got a ticket? ~ Yes, she was.
Has the car got a radio? No, it hasn’t.
The Joneses have got a television. We haven’t got one.
Have they got a video recorder? ~
No, they haven’t.



Form

I am we are
you are you are
he is they are
she is
it is

Short forms
‘m = am
‘re = are aren’t = are not
‘s = is isn’t = is not

For the use of short form 39.5

Short answers
Yes, I am. No, I’m not.
Yes, you are. No, you aren’t.
Yes, he/she/it is. No, he/she/it isn’t.
Yes, we/you/they are. No, we/you/they aren’t.

20.1 personal pronouns



Form

1 I have got we have got
you have got you have got
he has got they have got
she has got
it has got







2. have
I have two sisters. I haven’t any brothers.
Have you any money? ~ No, I haven’t.
Mr. Hill has a beard.
Has Sarah many friends? ~ Yes, I think she has.
The house has four bedrooms.
We’ve a lot to do, and we haven’t much time.
Have the others any ideas?













2.3 The present continuous tense

1. Jane is talking to a friend at the moment. The boys are sitting in the garden.
2. It isn’t raining now, look.
3. What are you doing now? Are you writing a letter?
4. Is Richard working today? ~ No, he isn’t.










2 I have we have
you have you have
he has they have
she has
it has

Short forms
‘ve = have haven’t = have not
‘s = has hasn’t = has not

Short answers
Yes, I/you have. No, I/You haven’t.
Yes, he/she/it has. No, he/she/it hasn’t.
Yes, we/you/they have. No, we/you/they haven’t.

Use
We normally use have got, especially in speech. have is something more formal than have got.

5.5 other uses of have; 5.6 USA

Form

I am talking we are talking
You are talking you are talking
He/she/it is talking they are talking

1. The present continuous tense is the present tense of be + the –ing form of a verb. 2.1 be; 38.3,5,6 spelling of the –ing form
2. In the negative n’t/not comes after a form of be.
3. In questions a form of be comes before the subject. But 21.2
4. Short answers are with a form of be.

Use
We use the present continuous tense to talk about things that are happening now, at the moment.

2.5; 4.5 with a future meaning

2.4 The simple present tense

Positive statement
1a We sit here every evening. I something read a book.
b Emma reads the newspaper or watches television.










Negative statement
2a I don’t live in England; I live in Scotland.
b My friend doesn’t come from France; he comes from Germany.






Questions
3a Do you like this music? ~ Yes, it’s nice.
Which record do you want? ~ This one here.
b Does Jane want to drink? ~ No, she’s got one.
How does she feel now? ~ Better, she says.









Form

I sit we sit
you sit you sit
he/she/it sits they sit

1a With I, you, we and they, we use the base form of the verb, e.g. sit, read.
b In the third person singular (e.g. with he, she or it), the verb ends in –s or –es, e.g. reads, watches,
38.1-3,6 pronunciation and spelling
A very few verbs have an irregular pronunciation in the third person singular, e.g. does [d^z], says [sez]. 40

I don’t live we don’t live
you don’t live you don’t live
he/she/it doesn’t live they don’t live
.
2a With I, you, we and they, we form the negative with don’t/do not and the base form of the verb.
b In the third person singular we form the negative with doesn’t/does not and the base form of the verb (without –s), e.g. live.
.
Do I like . . . ? Do we like . . . ?
Do you like . . . ? Do you like . . . ?
Does he/she/it like . . . ? Do they like . . . ?
.
2a In questions with I, you, we and they, we put do before the subject.
b In questions in the third person singular we put does before the subject. We use the base form of the verb (without –s), e.g. like.

For questions with who and what asking about the subject (e.g. who likes this music?) 21.2
Short answers
4 Do you think it’s good idea? ~ Yes, I do.
Does Ann know the address? ~ No, she doesn’t.












2.5 Present continuous or simple present? [A]

The present continuous and the simple present tenses do not have the same uses. Study carefully the difference between them.

Present continuous
1 Kate’s listening to the radio at the moment.
Mr. Brown isn’t working today.

Simple present
2 She listens to the music program me every day.
He doesn’t work on Saturday.
3a I think you’re right.
b Mike wants a sandwich.
c He says he’s hungry.
d I have two children.
e The camera cost £55.





Yes, I/you/we/they do.No, I/you/we/they don’t.
Yes, he/she/it does. No, he/she/it doesn’t

Uses of the simple present tense
We use the simple present to talk about
1 things that happen again and again. E.g. We sit here every evening
2 facts, things that stay the same for a long time, e.g. I live in Scotland
3 feelings, e.g. I like, I want
4 thoughts, e.g. I think, I know

1.8 dramatic use; 4.6 with a future meaning;
11 if-clauses; 13.2 in a sub clause of future time




Present continuous
1 things that are happening at the moment
Simple present
2 things that happen again and again. But 2.6-8
3 Verbs which describe actions can have a continuous or a simple form. But some verbs are normally only used in simple tenses. These are
a verbs of thinking, e.g. think (=believe), believe, agree understand, know, remember, forget
b verbs of feeling, e.g. want, wish, like love, hate
c reporting verbs, e.g. say, ask, tell, answer
d verbs of possession, e.g. have, own, belong
e some other verbs, e.g. cost, weigh, seem, appear, need

Note We use can instead of a present tense with see, hear and other verbs of perception, e.g. I can see a café over there.

28.6 after here and there
2.6 Present continuous or simple present? [B]

Present continuous
1 I’m learning English at evening classes this year.
Don’t take that book, please. Judy’s reading it.

Simple present
2 My children learn English at school.
She often reads detective stories.


2.7 The present continuous tense with always

Jennifer’s always losing her key.
I’m always paying for your coffee. Why can’t you pay for a change?






2.8 The simple present tense: dramatic use

1 The car stops outside the National Bank. Three men get out and the driver stays in the car. The three men walk into the bank and take out their duns . . .
2 Ellis throws the ball in to Snow, but he loses it. Watson gives the ball to Tanner. Tanner goes past two men, he shoots, but the ball hits a Liverpool player . . .







1 We can use the present continuous to talk about something that is happening for a limited period of time (e.g. this year) but is not happening just a moment.
2 We use the simple present for something that happens over a longer period of time.





Form

1.3. always comes between be and the –ing form

Use

We use the present continuous tense with always to talk about something that happens too often.

24.7 adverb of frequency





Form 2.4

Use
We sometimes use the simple present tense
1 to tell a story, to describe the dramatic action of a play or film
2 to describe action (e.g. in spot) while they are happening




3 Verbs: Talking about the past

3.1 The past tense of be

I was in London last week. I wasn’t here.
Was I asleep? ~ Yes, you were.
You were rude woman just now. You weren’t very polite.
Were you at the meeting yesterday? ~ Yes, I was.
Philip was at the club last night, but Ann wasn’t with him.
Was he with Julia? ~ Yes, he was.
Was she at home? ~ No, she was at a party.
It was fine yesterday, but wasn’t very warm.
How was the meal? ~ Very good.
We were at the back. We weren’t near the front.
Were we in France two years ago? ~ Yes, we were.
The early Britons were hunter. They were not farmers.
Were the Romans here? ~ Yes, they were.


3.2 The past tense of have (got)

have got

I had got/I’d got a little money, but hadn’t got enough for a taxi.
Had you got an umbrella with you? ~ Yes, I had

have
I had/I’d a little money, but I didn’t have/I hadn’t enough for a taxi.
Did you have/had you an umbrella with you? ~ Yes, I did/had







Form

I was We were
you were you were
he/she/it was they were

Short forms
Wasn’t = was not
Weren’t = were not

Short answers
Yes, I/he/she/it was. No, I/he/she/it wasn’t.
Yes, you/we/they were. No, you/we/they weren’t.








Form

Had got or had in all persons

Short forms
‘d = had hadn’t = had not

Short answers
Yes, I/you/he we/they had.
No, I/you/he we/they hadn’t.
Yes, I did etc.

We can form negatives and questions with had got, with have or with did. 3.3
had is more usual than had got, and we normally use did in negatives and questions.
3.3 The simple past tense

Positive statement
1 We enjoyed the show last night.
I once worked in a restaurant.
The plane landed safety in field.
2 I went to Finland about five years ago.
She sang all her favorite songs.



Negative statement
Andrew didn’t stay very long yesterday.
We didn’t get home until midnight.

Questions
Did you enjoy the show? ~ Yes, we did.
Did she sing her new hit? ~ No, she didn’t.
What time did you arrive home? ~ About midnight.





















Form
1 We form the simple past tense of most verbs with –ed or –d, e.g. enjoyed, worked, liked. 38.3-6 pronunciation and spelling
2 Some verbs have an irregular past form, e.g. went, sang. 40
Regular and irregular past forms are the same in all persons (but not be 3.1)


We form the negative with didn’t/did not and the base form of verb (without –ed), e.g. stay.

We form questions with did and the base form of the verb (without –ed), e.g. enjoy. For questions with who and what asking about the subject (e.g. who enjoyed the show?) 21.2

Short answers
Yes, I/you/he/we/they did.
No, I/you/hw/we/they didn’t.

Use of the simple past

We use the simple past tense to talk about things that happened at a time that is now finished, e.g. last night, five years ago, yesterday.
We often use the simple past tense to tell a story.

3.5 present perfect or simple past?










3.4 The present perfect tense

1 I’ve cleaned my shoes. (SO they’re clean now.)
2 Mr. Green has bought a new car. (So it’s his car now.)
3 Joana hasn’t eaten any toast. (The toast is still on the table.)
4a Have you finished the housework? ~
b No, I haven’t. I’m still doing now.
5 I’ve just written that letter.
6a You haven’t posted the letter yet.
b Have you found those stamps yet? ~ No, not yet.
7a have you seen Sarah today? ~
b No, I haven’t. I haven’t seen her this week.
8a How long has Anny lived here? ~
b Oh, only for six months. She’s been here since April.
9a have you ever eaten rabbit? ~ Yes, lots of times. ~
b Well, I’ve never had it.





















Form

I/you have cleaned
He/she/it has cleaned
We/you/they have cleaned

1 The present perfect tense is the present tense of have + the –ed form (past participle). 2.2. have, 38. 3-6 pronunciation and spelling of the –ed form.
2 Some verbs have an irregular past participle, e.g. bought. 40
3 In the negative, n’t/not comes after have or has.
4a In question, have or has comes before the subject. But 21.2
b We form short answers with have/has.
Note the irregular past participles of be and have.
8a be have been
9a have have had

Use

We use the present perfect to talk about
1-4 the present result of a past action
5 something that happened only a short time ago (…just…)
6 an action that we are expecting (…yet)
7 something that happened during a period of time that is not yet finished (…today, … this week)
8 something that began in the past and has stayed the same up to the present (…for six months, … since April)
9 something that happened during a period of time which began in the past and has gone on up to the present (…ever…, …never…)

Note in British English we some use the present perfect tense where Americans use the simple past, e.g. Did you find those stamps yet?

5.4 been to and gone to
3.5 Present perfect or simple past?

Present perfect
1 They’ve opened the new road. (So it’s open now.)
2 I’ve just got up.
3 I haven’t seen the exhibition yet.
4 It hasn’t rained today.
5 How long has Mrs. Peters had that car?
6 Have you ever travelled by plane?


The present perfect and simple past tense do not have the same uses. Study carefully the differences between them:

Present perfect
1 the present result a past action
2 a short time ago
3 something that we are expecting.
4 an unfinished time
5 something that has stayed the same
6 a time up to the present



















Simple past
1 Yes, they opened it last week.
2 Peter got up at half past six.
3 Tom saw it in town on Saturday.
4 And it didn’t rain yesterday.
5 Let me see. When did she but it?
6 Yes, we travelled in London by plane six months ago.






Simple past
1 a past action
2 a longer time ago
3 something that is already over
4 a finished time
5 an action that changed something
6 a time in the past

We use the simple past (not the present perfect with a phrase of past time which says (or asks) when something happened, e.g.
1 last week 4 yesterday
2 at half past six 5 when …?
3 on Saturday 6 six months ago









3.6 The past perfect tense

Compare the tenses:
1 Alan’s got no money. He’s spent it all.

Past perfect
2 Alan had no money last Sunday. He’d spent it all.
I didn’t go to see the film last night because I’d seen it before.
Had Mrs. Williams already arrived when you got to the station? ~ No, she hadn’t.
After we had looked round the museum, we went to a restaurant.

Simple past
3 We looked round the museum, and then we went to restaurant.

























Form

Had + the –ed form (past participle)

Some past participle end in –ed, and some are irregular. 40

Short form ‘d = had hadn’t = had not
We form short answer with had. 3.2

Use

1 Remember that we use the present perfect tense to talk about the present result of past action.
2 When we talk about the past, we sometimes talk about one thing that happened before another.
We use the past perfect tense for the thing that happened first and the simple past tense for what happened later.
3 When one thing happened and then another, we can also use the simple past tense for both actions.















3.7 The past continuous tense

Compare the present continuous and past continuous:
1 What are you doing? ~ I’m waiting for a bus.
2 What were you doing at six o’clock yesterday evening? ~ I was waiting for a bus.

Compare the past continuous and simple past:
3 We were watching the news when the telephone rang.
The accident happened while they were coming down the mountain.
What were you doing when the policeman came? ~ I was just making some coffee.
4a When the telegram arrived, I was packing a suitcase.
b When the telegram arrived, I packed a suitcase.
5 It was a lovely morning. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing in the trees.
6 While everyone was talking and laughing, Marta was crying quietly in the kitchen downstairs.
7 She wanted to be a writer when I knew her.
















Form

was/were ( 3.1) + the –ing form
We form short answers with was/were.

Use

1 Remember that we use the present continuous tense to talk about things happening now.
2 We use the past continuous tense to talk about things happening at a time in the past, e.g. at six o’clock yesterday evening.

5.55 6.00 6.05


I was waiting for a bus

3 If an action was going on for some time (e.g. we were watching the news) and a new, shorter action happened (e.g. the telephone rang), we use past continuous for the longer action.

7.00 7.30
I was watching
the news.
The telephone rang.

4a We use the past continuous tense for a longer action that is interrupted. (The arrival of the telegram interrupted my packing.)
b We use a simple past tense when one action follows another. (The telegram arrived, and then I packed a suitcase.)
5 We often use a past continuous tense to describe a scene, especially when telling a story.
6 We also use the past continuous tense for two longer actions happening at the same time.
7 Some verbs (e.g. want, know) are not normally used in continuous tenses. 2.5

3.8 The present continuous tense

1 Peter has been working in the garden since ten o’clock this morning, and he’s still hard at work.
2 Alan, you’ve been reading that book all day. ~ Yes, I have, but I haven’t finished it yet.
3 What have you been doing this afternoon, Carol? ~ I’ve been talking to some friends at the club.

































Form

have been/has been + the –ing form
We form short answers with have/has. 2.2

Use

1 the present perfect continuous tense shows that an action began in the past and has gone on for some time. We often use the tense in a question with How long …? Or with for or since. 25.7
2 We can use the tense to talk about an action that is still happening.

the moment
of speaking
(4.00)

10.00
Alan has been reading
a book.

(He is still reading it.)

3 We can use the tense to talk about an action that finished a short time ago.

the moment
of speaking
(4.00)

2.00
Carol has been talking
to some friends.

(She has finished
talking to them.)
3.9 Present perfect or present perfect continuous?

1 The lawn looks nice because I’ve cut the grass. (The grass is short now.)
I’m tired because I’ve been cutting the grass.
(The cutting went on for some time.)
2 I’ve owned this bicycle since I was fifteen.
(Something staying the same)
I’ve been riding this bicycle since I was fifteen.
(Something happening)
3a Mrs. Dobson has lived in Bristol for twenty years and has worked at the bookshop for ten years.
b Mrs. Dobson has been living in Bristol for twenty years and has been working at the bookshop for ten years.




3.10 The past perfect continuous tense

Compare the two tenses:

Present perfect continuous
1 We’ve been working hard since seven o’clock so we’re going to have a rest now.

Past perfect continuous
2 We felt very tired yesterday afternoon because we had been working hard since seven o’clock.
How long had you been waiting when the Browns arrived?
Had Keith been driving a van before he got the job at the factory last years? ~ Yes, he had. He’d been delivering furniture for three years.





The present perfect and present perfect continuous tenses do not have the some uses.
Study carefully the differences between them.
1 We use both tenses to talk about an action that finished a short time ago. We use the present perfect to talk about the present result of an action, and we use the present perfect continuous to show that an action has gone on for some time.
2 We use both tenses to talk about things that began in the past and have gone on up the present. We use the present perfect to talk about something staying the same and the present perfect continuous to talk about something happening.
3 We can talk about some things either as staying the same (a) or as happening (b).




Form

Had been + the –ing form
We form short answers with had. 3.2

Use

1 Remember that we use the present perfect continuous tense ( 3.8) to talk about an action that has gone on up to the present time.
2 We use the past perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that went on up to a time in the past.




3.11 used to

1 We used to live in London years ago.
2 Did you use to go cycling when you were younger? ~ Yes, I did.
3a Tourists didn’t use to come here.
b Tourists used not to come here.
c Tourists never use to come here.
4 Lots of tourists come here nowadays.































Form
1 used to + the base form of the verb in all persons.
2 We form questions and short answers with did..
3a The negative is
a usually didn’t use to
b sometimes used not to or
c never used to (more emphatic)

Use

Use to means that something often happened in the past but does not happen now.
4 There is no present tense of used to. We use the simple present tense of a normal verb to talk about things that often happen these days.
























4 Verbs: Talking about the future

4.1 Will

1 Life will be very different in a hundred years’ time. ~ Yes, it will, but I won’t be here. I’ll be dead.
2 I think England will on Saturday. ~ No, they won’t. They won’t beat Italy.
3a I think I’ll read a book this evening. Or perhaps I’ll watch television.


















4.2 shall

I shall be ready in about half an hour.
We shall get wet in this rain.
I shan’t be here next week.
We shan’t stay long.







Form

will in all person. But 4.2

Short form
‘ll = will won’t = will not

Short answers
Yes, I/you/he/we/they will.
No, I/you/he/we/they won’t.

Use

1 We use will to talk about something in the future (often a long way in the future). It does not mean that somebody has dedicated on an action.
2 We use will to talk about things which the speaker cannot control. (We use it to make predications.
30.6)
3 If we are talking about things that we have not yet dedicated to do until the moment of speaking, we can use will. 32.1

4.4; 4.7; 4.10; 7.11; 13.2 sub clauses of future time



Instead of will and won’t, we sometimes use shall and shan’t (shall not) to talk about the future, but only in the first person.

7.11 uses of will and shall



4.3 be going to

1 We’re going to walk up the hill this afternoon.
Are you going to take a picnic? ~ Yes, we are.
2 Look at those black clouds up there. It’s going to rain.
It isn’t going to be nice enough for a picnic.
3 We were going to go for a walk, but the weather made us change our minds.
It was obviously going to rain at any moment, so they began to carry the food back into the house.


4.4 will or be going to?

will
1 Trains will be much faster in the future.
2 Just a minute. I think I’ll buy a newspaper.

be going to
3 I’m going to read this book. I bought it last week.
4 That boat’s full of water. It’s going to sink!



















1 We use going to to talk about people’s
intentions, things they have already decided to do in the future. 32.2 intentions
2 We also use be going to to make predications when there is something in the present (e.g. black clouds) which tells us about the future (often the near future). 30.6 predications
3 We use the past of be going to to talk about past intentions or past predications.





Will and be going to do not have the same uses.
Study carefully the differences between them.

We use will
1 to talk about things in the future which we cannot control (not things that we have decided to do)
2 when we are deciding to do something at the moment of speaking

We use be going it
3 to talk about intentions, things we have already decided to do
4 when there is something in the present which tells us about the future










4.5 The present continuous tense with a future meaning

Are you doing anything tonight? ~
Yes, I’m playing tennis. We’ve got a game against another club.
Are you taking a holiday this year? ~
Yes, we’ve just arranged a holiday. We’re spending ten days in Spain.




4.6 The sample present tense with a future meaning

What time does your plane go? ~
It leaves at half past ten on Saturday, and we arrive in Rome at twelve o’clock.




4.7 will be + -ing form

1 Mr. Briggs is 65, so he will be leaving the company next month.
Will you be staying late at the office tomorrow? ~ Yes, I will. I’ve a lot of work to do.
2 I’ve got all the garden to dig---I’ll be doing it all day.
We’re washing up now, but this time next week we won’t be washing up---we’ll be lying on the beach in the sun!






Form 2.3

Use

We often the present continuous tense to talk about things that people have arranged to do in the future.
This meaning is almost the same as be going to used for things people have decided to do
( 4.3)




Form 2.4

Use

We sometimes use the simple present tense to talk about a program or timetable in the future.





1 We use be + -ing form to talk about things which are fairly certain to happen in the future.
This meaning is almost the same as the present continuous tense with a future meaning. 4.5
2 We also use will be + -ing form to talk about actions that will be going on for some time in the future.




4.8 be to

The American President is to visit the Soviet Union later this year.
The two leader are to meet in Moscow.
The Minister travelled to Glasgow, where he was to open a factory the following day.




4.9 be about to

I’m about to leave for the station. The train leaves in twenty minutes.
I think it’s just about to start raining.
Robert was about to pay the glass when he noticed a small crack in it.




4.10 will have + -ed form

Let’s go out tonight. ~ All right. I have some work to do, but I’ll have finished it by about eight.
Can I have the book back tomorrow, please? Will you have read it by them? ~ No, I won’t. I won’t have read all of it until the weekend.












We use be to for official arrangements.
We use be to mostly in formal written English.

12.6; 31.1 be to used for orders






We use be about to to talk about things which are going to happen in the very near future.









We use will have + -ed form (past participle) to talk about something that will be completed at a time in the future.
We often use the verb finish.
We often use by and (in negative sentences), till/until. 25.5








5 Verbs: be, have and do

5.1 Be, have and do used as auxiliary verbs

1 I’m writing a letter.
We’ve spent a lot a money.
2 I’m not working today.
The program hasn’t started yet.
You didn’t send me a postcard.
3 Are you waiting for someone?
Have you filled in the form?
Does Alison take sugar?
4a Emma is coming, isn’t she? ~ Yes, she is.
Peter plays golf, doesn’t he? ~ No, he doesn’t.
b The letter has come but the money hasn’t.
The passengers got out and so did the driver.
c You are doing well.
I do like that colour.





5.2 Used of be

1 Jane is ill. She wasn’t at school today. She’s been in bed since last night.
2 She wasn’t feeling very well yesterday, but she’s eating a little now.
3 This medicine is best taken after meals. It must be taken three times a day.












We use be, have and do as auxiliary verbs (helping verbs). Auxiliary verbs help to form tenses.
1 In positive statement we use be and have to form tenses.
Note in two tenses only---the simple present and the simple past---we do not use an auxiliary, e.g.
I write a letter every week. We spent ten pounds.
2 In the negative we use be, have or do (or a modal verb 7.1) + n’t/not. 8.1
3 In questions we use be, have or do (or a modal verb) before the subject. 8.2
4 We also use an auxiliary verb (or modal verb)
a in question tags 8.5 and in short answers 8.4
b in short additions to statements 9.1
c in the emphatic form 28.2





We use be
1 with a complement or adverb phrase 1.1; 2.1; 3.1
2 as an auxiliary verb (helping verb) in continuous tenses 2.3; 3.7, 8, 10; 7.14
3 as an auxiliary verb in the passive 10

For be to 4.8; 31.1





5.3 it + be and there + be

it + be
It’s after on, isn’t it? ~
Yes, it is. It’s quarter past.
(= The time is after one o’clock.)
It wasn’t expensive to go to London.
(+ The fare wasn’t expensive.)
Has it been very wet here?
(= Has the weather been very wet?)
It’s a huge stadium, but it’ll be full tonight.
(= The stadium will be full.)

there + be
There’s no time for a meal. ~ No, there isn’t.
(= No time exists …/We have no time …)
There weren’t any trains on Sundays.
(= Trains didn’t run on Sundays.)
Has there been an accident? ~ Yes, there has.
(= has an accident happened?)
There’ll be a big crowd here tonight.
(= A big crowd will come tonight.)




5.4 been to and gone to

1 Have you ever been to America? ~
Yes, I went to New York two years ago.
2 Is Judy in America? ~
Yes, she’s gone to Los Angeles. She’ll be back next week.








Form

After if the verb is always singular, e.g. it’s

Use

We use it instead of a noun phrase, e.g. the time, the fare, the weather.

20.2 uses of it


Form

If the noun after there + be is plural, then the verb is plural too, e.g. there weren’t any trains.

Use

We use there + be to say that something exists.
After there + be we use a noun phrase, e.g. no time, any trains, a storm, but not usually a noun with the.

28.6 emphatic use of there



We sometimes use the past participle of be instead of the past participle of go.
1 been to = gone somewhere and now come back
2 gone to = gone somewhere and still there







5.5 Used of have

Auxiliary verb
1 Have you sold your car? ~
Yes, it had done 100,000 miles, you know.

have (got)
2 You had a telephone last year. ~
Yes, but we haven’t got one now.

have (got) to
3 Have you got to clean the stairs? ~
Yes, we have to wash the hall floor, too.

Normal verb
4 I’m having a sandwich.
I think I’ll just have a cup of tea.
5 Are you having a good holiday?
We’ve had some lovely weather lately, haven’t we?
6 Did you have a look at the pictures?
The children didn’t have a ride on the donkey.





5.6 have in American English

1 GB: Have you got a ticket to London? ~
Yes, I have. But my friend hasn’t got one.
2 USA: Do you have a ticket to New York? ~
Yes, I do. But my friend doesn’t have one.










1 have as an auxiliary verb (helping verb) in perfect tenses. 3.4, 6, 8, 10; 5.1; 7.15
2 have (got) meaning own or possess. 2.2; 3.2; 5.6
3 have (got) to meaning the same as must. 7.4 have as a normal verb with other meanings, e.g.
4 eat or drink 31.1 ordering food; 33.1 offering food
5 something happening to us, something that we experience
6 have a look = look (verb); have a ride = ride (verb) etc.

Note The normal verb have can have a continuous form (Are you having…?) and we form questions and negatives with do (Did you have…?)

10.8 have something done







1 have got is more usual in British English (but we also use have especially in the past tense 3.2)
2 have is more usual in American English.
Questions, negatives and short answers are with do.

7.4 have (got) to


5.7 Used of do

Auxiliary verb
1 What does this word mean? ~ I don’t know.
Did you learn English at school? ~ Yes, I did.
2 Don’t shout. I can hear you all right.

Normal verb
3 What do you do in your free time?
What are doing now?
I did something interesting yesterday.
What did you do?
4 We’re doing a few odd jobs.
Mike’s done some wallpapering.




























1 As an auxiliary verb (helping verb) in the simple present and simple past tenses. 2.4; 3.3
2 As an auxiliary verb with the negative imperative.
And 6.1
3 As a normal verb, to talk about an action when we do not know or do not say what the action is.
4 As a normal verb meaning e.g. work at, finish.
15.4

Note We use the auxiliary verb do with the normal verb do in the simple present and simple past tenses, e.g. What do you do? What did you do?
























6 Verbs: The imperative and let’s

6.1 The imperative

1 Come here, please, David.
Go and stand over there, Jane.
2 Help me with these cases, you two.
3 Don’t drop the glass.
4 Do be careful.
5 Have a drink. ~
Not for me, thank. But you have one.
6 go straight ahead here and then turn right at the crossroads.










6.2 let’s

1 Let’s sit down for a minute.
2 Oh, don’t let’s stop/let’s not stop now.
3 Do let’s finish the job first.













Form

1 The imperative is the base form of the verb.
2 We use the same form to talk to two or more people.
3 We use don’t in the negative.
4 We use do for emphasis. 28.2
5 We sometimes use you before the imperative.

Use

We use the imperative
1,2 to give order 31.1
3,4 to give warnings 31.7
5 for informal offers or invitations 32.1, 2
6 to tell someone how to do something 31.6
8.5 question tags; 12.6 reporting orders





Form

1 After let’s we use the base form of the verb.
2 We use don’t let’s or let’s not in the negative.
3 We use do for emphasis. 28.2

Use

We use let’s to make suggestions. 31.4

8.5 question tags; 33.1 let me





7 Modal verbs

7.1 Introduction to modal verbs

1a We can find the way all right.
b I must clean this floor.
c The key may be in the drawer.
2 Can you drive a car? ~
Yes, I could drive when I was seventeen.
3a I can’t play the guitar. ~
But you said yesterday you could play.
b Alan won’t be at the meeting tonight. ~
But he told me he would be there.
4a I isn’t far. We could walk, couldn’t we?
b A picnic would be nice. ~ Yes it would.
c The rain might stop soon. On the other hand it might not.
d Why don’t we get a taxi? ~
Yes, I think wa should get one.
5a It’s a holiday tomorrow. You’ll be able to have a rest.
b When the manager way away, Mr. Fisher was allowed to use his office.
c I’ll have to take these library books back tomorrow.


















Form

1 The modal verbs are can, could, may might, will, would, shall, should, ought to, must, need, dare.
A modal verb always has the same form. There is no –s ending, no –ing form and no –ed form. But
7.13 dare
After a modal verb we use the infinitive without to, e.g. find, clean, be.
2 Modal verbs (and auxiliary verbs 5.1) come before the subject in questions.
3 Modal verb (and auxiliary verb) have n’t or not after them in the negative.
4 We also use a modal verb (or auxiliary verb)
a in question tags 8.5
b in short answers 8.4
c in short additions to statement 9.1
d in the emphatic form 28.2

Present, past and future
2 The past form of can is could.
3 In reported speech can, will, may and shall change to should, would, might and should. 12.3
4 But could, would, might and should also have their own meanings. We use them to talk about the present and the future too.
5 To talk about ability, permission and necessity in the past or the future, we can use be able to, be allowed to and have (got) to. 7.16

Use
1 We use modal verbs to talk about, for example,
a someone’s ability to do an action 7.2
b an action that is necessary 7.4
c a situation that is possible 7.7
7.2 Ability: can, could, be able to

1 I can swim.
Sarah could play the piano when she was very young.
If we go to town, I’ll be able to do some shopping.
Jim can’t drive.
Can your sister dance? ~ Yes, she can.
2 The children fell into the water, but luckily they were able to hold on to the boat.
I was able to swim back and get help.
3 Could you lift the cupboard? ~
No, I couldn’t. It was too heavy.
Were you able to paint the windows? ~
No, I wasn’t. it rained all day.
4 We could see a man on the roof.
I could hear the traffic on the main road.
5 I couldn’t do your job. I’m not clever enough.

Form

Positive Negative
Present can can’t/cannot
Am/are/is/able to am not/aren’t/isn’t able to
Past could couldn’t/could not
Was/were able to wasn’t/weren’t able to
Future will be able to won’t be able to


Short answers with can and could
Yes, I/you/he/we/they can.
Yes, I/you/he/we/they couldn’t.
No, I/you/he/we/they can’t.
No, I/you/he/we/they couldn’t.








Use

1 We use can and could to talk about ability or opportunity.
2 We use was/were able to to talk about ability or opportunity + action in the past. I was able to swim back means that I really did swim back.
We do not use could to talk about a past action which really happened.
3 We can use both could and was/were able to in questions and negative sentences. (but Could you…?Is often a request. 31.2)
4 We can use can and could with verbs of perception, e.g. see, hear, could see = saw.
5 We can use could to talk about ability in a situation which we are imagining. Here could = would be able to. For would 7.9

7.8 possibility: could; 7.16 be able to



















7.3 Permission: can, may, be, allowed to

1 People can drive/may drive/are allowed to drive a car in Britain when they’re seventeen.
People can’t drive/may not drive/are not allowed to drive a car before they’re seventeen.
My brother is sixteen. He’ll be allowed to drive a car soon.
Were you allowed to look round the church yesterday? ~ Yes, we were, but we weren’t allowed to take any photos.
2 Can I ride your bicycle, please, Jane? ~
Of course you can.
May I use your telephone, please, Mr. Taylor? ~
Certainly you may.

Form

Positive Negative
Present can can’t/cannot
may may not
am/are/is allowed to am not/aren’t/isn’t allowed to
Past was/were allowed to wasn’t/weren’t allowed to
Future will be allowed to won’t be allowed to

We use short answers with can/can’t ( 7.2) and with may ( 7.7).














Use

1 We use can, may and be allowed to ( 7.16) to talk about permission, may is rather formal.
2 We use can or may to ask permission. 31.3

































7.4 Necessity: must, have (got) to, needn’t, mustn’t

Necessity
1 I’m late. I must hurry.
You must tell me the truth.
I’ve got to/I have to go to work today.
Martin has got to see/has to see the doctor.
We had to wait half an hour for the bus.
I’ll have to go and get some eggs.

No necessity
2 Have we got to pay/Do we have to pay now? ~
No, we haven’t/don’t.
You haven’t got to answer/You don’t have to answers the letter.
We didn’t have to book a table.
3 I needn’t wash this shirt. It’s clean.
You needn’t come if you don’t want to.

Not allowed
4 You mustn’t open other people’s letters.
I mustn’t forget my key.

Form

Positive Negative
Present needn’t/need not
must mustn’t/must not 7.5
have/has to don’t/doesn’t have to
have/has got to haven’t/hasn’t got to
Past had to didn’t have to
Future will have to won’t have to

Short answers with must, needn’t and mustn’t
Yes, I/you/he/we/they must.
No, I/you/he/we/they needn’t.
No, I/you/he/we/they mustn’t.



Use

1 Necessity means that you cannot avoid doing something. You must buy a ticket = You cannot go without a ticket.
We use must and have (got) to to talk about necessity.
must expresses the authority or feelings of the speaker, and have (got) to ( 7.16) refers to the authority of another person or to something the speaker cannot control. 31.1 orders
2 We use the negative forms of have (got) to when there is no necessity.
3 We can also use needn’t when there is no necessity.
Note We also use the normal verb need with to, e.g. Do we need to pay now? We didn’t need to book a table. The modal verb and the full verb have the same meaning.
4 We use mustn’t when we are not allowed to do something. You mustn’t forget = Don’t forget.














.

7.5 Needn’t or mustn’t?

1a The car’s clean. I needn’t wash in this week.
b It isn’t raining. You needn’t take the coat.
2a The baby’s asleep. We mustn’t make a noise.
b Your father’s very ill. He mustn’t get up.



7.6 Obligation: ought to, should

You’re not fit. You ought to walk more.
You should walk more.
I oughtn’t to eat cakes.
I shouldn’t eat cakes.
Ought Paul to see a doctor? ~
Yes, I think he ought (to).
Should he see a doctor? ~ Yes, I think he should.

Form

Positive Negatives
ought to oughtn’t to/ought not to
should shouldn’t/should not

Short answers
Yes, I/you/he/we/they ought (to).
No, I/you/he/we/they oughtn’t (to).
Yes, I/you/he/we/they should.
No, I/you/he/we/they shouldn’t.










Needn’t and mustn’t have different meanings. It is important to know the difference between them, or there can be misunderstandings.
1 We use needn’t when there is no necessity to do something, but we can do it we want to.
2 We use mustn’t when we are not allowed to do something, or when there is a necessity not to do it.

Use

Obligation means that something is the right thing to do. You ought to walk = Walking is the right thing for you to do.
We use ought to and should to express obligation or to give advice. 31.5
There is little difference between ought to and should, but ought to is sometimes a little stronger than should.

7.12 other uses of should; 35.1, 1 approving and blaming.















7.7 Possibility: may, might

1 The keys may be/might be in one of those drawers.
2 Amanda may not/might not come tomorrow.
3 Do you think it’ll snow? ~ Yes, it may/might.

Form

Positive Negatives
may may not
might might not/mightn’t

Short answers
Yes, I/you/he/we/they may.
No, I/you/he/we/they may not.
Yes, I/you/he/we/they might.
No, I/you/he/we/they might not/mightn’t.


7.8 Possibility: could

1 The keys could be in one of those drawers.
2 We could go out later, couldn’t we? ~
Yes, why not?

Form

Positive could
Negatives couldn’t/could not

For short answers 7.2







Use

We use may and might to talk about.
1 possibility in the present
2 possibility in the future
There is little difference between may and might but a speaker who uses might is a little less sure.
3 To ask questions, we use Do you think…? and will.
7.15 possibility in the past; 30.5 being sure and unsure; 32.2 intentions









Use

We use could to talk about
1 possibility in the present (could is rather less sure than may or might 7.7)
2 possibility in the future, especially in suggestions
31.4
For the use of could to talk about past ability or about a situation which we are imagining 7.2

7.15 possibility in the past; 31.2 requests







7.9 Imagining situations: would

A holiday in the Bahamas would be nice. ~
Yes, it would. I’d certainly enjoy a holiday right now.
How much would it cost? ~
I don’t know, but it wouldn’t be cheap.















7.10 Certainty: will, must, can’t

He left half an hour ago, so he’ll be home by now.
(= he is certainly home by now)
No one’s answering the phone. They must be out.
(= They are certainly out)
This story can’t be true.
(= It is certainly untrue.)










Form

would in all persons

Short forms
‘d = would wouldn’t = would not

Short answers
Yes, I/you/he/we/they would.
No, I/you/he/we/they wouldn’t.

Use

We use would to talk about a situation which we are imagining (= thinking about) but which is not really happening.

7.12 other uses; 16.2 would like; 30.8 having ideas






We use will, must and can’t to say that something is logically certain.

30.5 being sure and unsure









7.11 Used of will and shall

will

Future
Juliet will be 20 next month. 4.1
Deciding
I think I’ll buy it. 4.1
Request
Will you shut the window, please? 31.2
Invitations
Will you/Won’t you sit down? 33.2
Promises
I will write, I promise. 32.5
Refusing
The car won’t start. What’s wrong with it? 32.4
Certainly
I sent the parcel last week, so they’ll have
it by now 7.10
Strict orders
You’ll do as I tell you. 31.1

shall

Suggestions
Shall we go out this evening? 31.4
Offering
Shall I carry your bags for you? 33.1
Promises
You shall have the goods by next week. 32.5
Future with I/we
I shall be on holiday in July 4.2







7.12 Used of would and should

would

Imagining situations
It would be nice to have a party here
one weekend. 31.2
If I had a lot of money, I’d travel round
the world. 11.9
Wishing
I’d like to meet your brother.
I wish this rain would stop. 34.5
Request
Would you write your address here,
please? 31.2
Invitations
Would you like to come to dinner? 33.2
Preferences
I’d rather have tea than coffee. 34.6
Reporting will
She said she would come tomorrow. 12.3

should

Obligation
We should help other people. 7.6
Advice
I think you should go by air. It’s much
quicker. 31.5
In if-clauses
If you should be late, I’ll wait for you. 11.2








7.13 dare

1 Dare you climb the ladder? ~ No, I daren’t.
I daren’t go near the dog.
The quest dared not complain.
2 Do you dare (to) climb the ladder? ~ No, I don’t.
I don’t dare (to) go near the dog.
The quests didn’t dare (to) complain.









7.14 Modal verbs + be + -ing form

Obligation
Why are you still here watching television?
You ought to be doing/should be doing some work.

Possibility
Elaine may be coming/might be coming to tea tomorrow.

Certainly
What’s that noise? ~ It’s Mr. Greaves. He must be repairing his motorbike.

Imagining
I’m glad it’s a holiday. I’d be working if it wasn’t.






Form

1 We can use dare/dared as a modal verb.
We use the infinitive without to after the modal verb.
2 We can use dare as a normal verb with do/did.
We use the infinitive with to after the normal verb.

Use

Dare means not to be afraid to do something.
We use dare mostly in questions and negative sentences.







We can use a modal verb + be + -ing form to talk about obligation, possibility, etc.

4.7 will be + -ing form















7.15 Modal verbs + have + -ed form

Necessity
Not many people came to the party---we needn’t have bought so much food. (= It was not necessary to buy so much food, but, we had bought it.)

Obligation
Peter and Susan didn’t come. They ought to have told /should have told us. (= They had an obligation to tell us, but they didn’t tell us.)

Possibility
They may have forgotten/might have forgotten about it. (=It is possible that forgot about it.)

But Susan mentioned the party yesterday. She couldn’t have forgotten about it. (= It isn’t possible that she forgotten about it.)

Imagining
It would have been nice to see them here.
(= …if we had seen them here.)

7.16 be able to, be allowed to and have got to

1 Simple tenses
I’m able to visit my father quite often.
The visitors were allowed to go inside.
You don’t have to wait.
2 Perfect tenses
I haven’t been able to find their address.
We’ve had to sit here in the dark all evening.
Children had always been allowed to play on the grass before.
3 After will, may etc
We’ll be able to have a rest soon.
I may have to go to the bank.
They might not be allowed to leave early.
You ought to be able to find the answer.


We use a modal verb + have + -ed form (past participle) to talk about necessity, obligation etc,
in the past

Note We needn’t have bought so much food.
(= We bought too much.)
We didn’t need to buy much food.
(= We didn’t buy much because there was no need.) 7.4

4.10 will have + -ed form; 11.1 if-clauses












1 We can use be able to ( 7.2), be allowed to
( 7.3) and have (got) to ( 7.4) in the simple present and simple past tenses.
2 We can also use them in the present perfect and past perfect tense.
3 We can also use them after will and other modal verbs.







8 Negatives, questions and tags

8.1 Negative statements

1a I’m not leaving yet. I haven’t packed my bag.
B We can’t stop now or we won’t get there in time.
C I don’t remember that party. I didn’t go to it.
2a There are no light on.
(= There aren’t any light on.)
B Peter isn’t here, and neither is Jane.
(= Peter isn’t here, and Jane isn’t either.)
C There was nobody in the house.
(=There wasn’t anybody in the house.)
D I’ve never been here before.
(= I haven’t ever been here before.)

8.2 Questions

Yes/no questions
1 Are you looking for someone?
Has the new supermarket opened yet?
2 Shall we have lunch now?
Will John have lunch now?
3 Do you normally come here?
Did you see Jennifer Yesterday?
4 you saw Jennifer yesterday?

Wh-questions
1 Where are you going?
Which book have you read before?
2 How can we get there?
When must you be back?
3 Why does Mr. Gray leave so early?
4 Who did you see in George Street?
(You saw somebody.)
5 Who saw you in George Street?
(Somebody saw you.)





1 In a negative statement we use n’t/not after
A the auxiliary verb be or have 5.1
B a modal verb 7.1
C the auxiliary verb do in the simple present and simple past 2.4; 3.3
2 We can also make a negative statement with
A no and none 20.23
B neither and nor 9.1; 20.23; 27.5
C no one, nobody, nothing and nowhere 20.16
D never 24.7





In question we put one of there verbs before the subject:
1 the auxiliary verbs be or have 5.1
2 a modal verb 7.1
3 the auxiliary verbs do in the simple present and simple past 2.4; 3.3 (but see note 5)
1-3 Yes/no questions begin with an auxiliary or modal verbs, and we can answer them with yes or no. 8.4
Wh-question begin with a question word ( 21) and an auxiliary or modal verb.
4 In informal spoken English we something ask a yes/no questions by using the same word order as in a statement but with a rising intonation. We do this to check that our information is correct. 8.5
5 When who or what asks about the subject, the verb is the same as in a statement, e.g. Who saw you …? 21.2



Alternative questions
6 Are you going on Monday or Tuesday?
Shall we have lunch now or later?
Did you take a bus or did you walk?

8.3 Negatives questions

1 Who hasn’t arrived yet?
Why aren’t I on the list?
2 Why don’t we ask Sarah to the party?
Why doesn’t she come on the bus?
3 You were reading that book last month. Haven’t you finished it yet? ~ No, it’s taking me a long time.
4 Didn’t the Romans build this road?
(= The Romans built this road, didn’t they?)
5 Haven’t you done well!

Form

In negative questions we use an auxiliary or modal verb + n’t.
1 In the first person singular we use aren’t I?


8.4 Answering questions

Yes/no questions
Have you seen the photos?
1 Yes. 2 Yes, I have 3 Yes, I have seen then.
Will you be here tomorrow?
1 No. 2 No, I won’t 3 No, I won’t be here.

Wh-questions
Who want to drink
1 Me. 2 I do 3 I want a drink.
Where did you buy those jeans?
1 In the market. 3 I bought them in the market.


6 Alternative questions begin with an auxiliary or modal verb and have or ( 27.5) before the last alternative.



1 We can use a question word in a negative question to ask for information.
2 We can use why don’t/doesn’t…?to make a suggestion. 31.4,11
3 A negative question can express surprise. Haven’t you finished it? = I am surprised that you haven’t finished it. 34.7
We use no to agree with a negative question, e.g. Haven’t you finished it? ~ No, I haven’t finished it.
We use yes to disagree with a negative question, e.g. Don’t you like it? ~ Yes, I like it very much.
4 We can use a negative question to ask if a person agrees with a statement. 8.5
5 We can use a negative question form with a falling intonation in exclamations. 34.1





We can answer questions
1 in one word or phrase
2 often with a short answer using an auxiliary or modal verb
3 with a full sentence

Short answers are much more usual than full sentences.

31.2, 4 answering requests and suggestions;
33.1, 2 answering offers and invitations

8.5 Question tags

1a It’s lovely today, isn’t it? ~ It certainly is.
b You’ll be on holiday next week, won’t you? ~
No, we’ve had our holiday.
c Bob likes this weather, doesn’t he? ~
Yes, he does.
2a We haven’t had a nice summer for ages, have we? ~ No, we haven’t.
b The dog can’t get out, can it? ~ I don’t think so.
c You didn’t but these drinks, did you? ~
No, David did.
3 Ann isn’t here. ~ Oh, she’s working, is she?
I won’t be long. ~ You’ll be back soon, will you?
Jennifer was there. ~
You saw Jennifer yesterday, did you?
4a I’d better answer these letters, hadn’t I?
b You’d rather sit in the garden, wouldn’t you?
5a Let’s have some fresh air, shall we? I’ll open the window, shall I?
b Open the door, will you?/would you?/can you?/could you?
6a It’s lovely today, ~ isn’t it?
We haven’t had a nice summer for ages, ~ have we?
I’d better answer these letters,~ hadn’t i?
b you’ll be on holiday next week, ~ won’t you?
The dog can’t get out, ~ can it?
Let’s have some fresh air, ~ shall we?
Open the door, ~ will you?









Form

1,2 We form question tags with
a the auxiliary verbs be or have
b a modal verb, or
c the auxiliary verb do in the simple present or simple past
in a negative tag we put n’t after the auxiliary or modal verb.
After the verb (+ n’t ) there is a pronoun. The pronoun refers to the subject of the sentence.

Use
1 after a positive statement we use a negative tag to ask if a person agrees with the statement. 30.2
2 after a negative statement we use a positive tag to ask if a person agrees with the statement.
34.7 showing surprise
3 after a positive statement we can use a positive tag when we have just found out or just
remembered some information and we want to ask or check if it is correct. 34.7 showing interest
4a After had better we use a tag with had.
b After would rather we use a tag with would.
5a After suggestions with let’s and after offers, we use a tag with shall.
b After an imperative we use a tag with will, would, can or could.
6a We use falling intonation when we think the statement is true and we are asking someone to agree with it. (But he/she may disagree.)
b We use a rising intonation when we are not so sure that the statement is true. A tag with a rising intonation is almost the same as a real ye/no question. 8.2
We often use a rising intonation in suggestions, offers and request.

9 Replacing words and leaving out words

9.1 Short additions to statements

1 I like cats. ~ so do I./I do, too
The old man is very ill, and so is his wife./ and his wife is, too.
2 We’ve never been here before. ~
Neither have we/Nor have we./We haven’t either.
The shops won’t be open, and neither will the banks./and nor will the banks./and the banks won’t either.
3 The girls helped with the washing-up. The boys didn’t, though.
4 My Brother can’t swim, but I can.
5 My sister’s going to Japan. ~ Oh, is she?

9.2 So and not after a verb

1 Someone must have stolen your bicycle. ~ yes, I suppose so.
2 Will the police get it back for you? ~ I don’t think so.
3 Will you be able to buy a new one? ~ No, I’m afraid not.

















1 We make positive additions to positive sentences with so or too and an auxiliary or modal verb.
2 We make negative additions to negative sentences with neither/nor or either and an auxiliary or modal verb.

We also use an auxiliary or modal verb for
3 negative additions to positive sentences
4 positive additions to negative sentences
5 short questions after statement. 34.7 showing interest





1 We can use so after some verbs instead af a whole clause. /suppose so = I suppose someone must have stolen my bicycle.
2 We can use so after the negative form of some verbs, e.g. think, suppose, expect, imagine.
3 We can use not to give a negative answer after some verbs, e.g. be afraid, suppose, hope, believe, guess (USA).

Note We do not so or not after know or be sure, e.g. yes, I know, Yes, I’m sure.





9.3 Leaving out words [A]

My sister plays the piano and my brother the guitar.
(=…..and my brother plays the guitar.)
I like the music but not the words.
(=…..but I don’t like the words.)
Someone’s borrowed that record and I don’t know who.
(=…..and I don’t know who’s borrowed it.)


9.4 Leaving out words [B]

Enjoying the music? ~ Sounds great.
(= Are you enjoying the music? ~ it sounds
great.)
























We can leave out words instead of staying them again if the meaning is clear without them.

8.4 answering questions; 14.12 the verb after to; 18.4 the possessive form, 20.21 quantifiers without a noun






In informal speech we can leave out words from the beginning of a sentence if the meaning is clear without them.
The words which we leave out are usually a pronoun and/or an auxiliary verb.



















10 The passive




10.1 The passive; simple tense

The simple present tense
Subject Verb Object
Active The cleaners empty the bins. every evening.
Passive The bins are emptied every evening.
Active Does The manager lock the door ?
Passive Is the door locked ?



The simple past tense
Subject Verb Object
Active People heard the bomb five miles away.
Passive The bomb was heard five miles away.
Active Did the bomb injure many people ?
Passive Were many people injured



Form

We form the passive with be and the -ed form (past participle), e.g. are emptied, is locked, was heard, were injured
The object of an active verb becomes the subject of a passive verb, e.g. the bins, the door.
If the subject of a passive verb is plural, then the verb is also plural, e.g. the bins are emptied.
The subject of the active verb (the agent) is left out of these passive sentences. 10.2






Use

We use the passive to make the object of the active verb more important. We put the object of the active verb at the beginning of the passive sentence because we want to talk about e.g. the bins not about the cleaners, or about the bomb not about people.

Note We can also use the past participle as an adjective to describe the result of an action, e.g. The door is locked at the moment. 17.1






10.2 by + agent

Subject Verb Object (agent)
1 Active The birds eat the food.

Passive The food is eaten by the birds.
Active Picasso painted the picture.
Passive The picture was painted by Picasso
2 Active Someone stole the car.
Passive The car was stolen.
3 Active The Police arrested the driver.
Passive The driver was arrested.



1 The subject of the active verb is the agent, the person or thing that does the action.
The agent can come after a passive verb in a phrase with by, e.g. by the birds, by Picasso.
We put in the agent if it is important to mention it.
2 We can leave out the agent if we do not know it, e.g. The car was stolen. (We do not know who stole it.)

10.3 The passive; perfect tenses

The present perfect tense
Active They have opened two new motorways
Passive Two new motorways have been opened.
Active How much has the government spent on them?
Passive How much has been spent on them?
The past perfect tense
Active They had delivered the furniture while I was out.
Passive The furniture had been delivered while I was out.


3 We can leave out the agent if we do not need to mention it, e.g. The driver was arrested. (We know that the police arrested him or her.)









Form
We form the passive of perfect tenses with have/has been + past participle and had been + past participle.

Use 10.1







10.4 The passive; continuous tenses

The present continuous tense
Active They’re painting the bridge today.
Passive The bridge is being painted today
The past continuous tense
Active The farmer was milking the cows when we arrived
Passive The cows were being milked when we arrived


10.5 The passive; will and other modal verbs

Breakfast will be brought to your room.
Meals cannot be served after 11.00 p.m.
Your key should be given in before 11.30 a.m.
Must the bill be paid in cash?
The room has (got) to be cleaned.

10.6 The passive; direct and indirect object

Direct object
1 They sent a telegram to the winner.
A telegram was sent to the winner.
Indirect object
2 They sent a telegram to the winner.
The winner was sent a telegram.
Direct object
3 They promised the workers better conditions.
Better conditions were promised to the workers.
Indirect object
4 They promised the workers better condition. The workers were promised better conditions.





Form
We form passive voice of continuous tenses with am/are/is being + past participle and was/were being + past participle.

Use 10.1






Form
After modal verbs we use be + past participle to form the passive.

Use 10.1




The subject of passive sentence can be either
1,3 the direct object of an active sentence or
2,4 the indirect object an active sentence.












10.7 The passive with get

1 Lots of people get injured in the home.
The cake got burnt in the oven.
How did this clock get broken?
2 I had to get dressed in the dark.
Without a map we soon got lost.
When did they get married?


10.8 have/get something done

1 have something done
We had this room decorated last year.
I’m having my hair cut tomorrow.
Did you have your suit cleaned?
2 get something done
We got this room decorated last year.
I’m getting my hair cut tomorrow.
Did you get your suit cleaned?








10.9 It + passive verb + clause

1 Active People say that the company is in difficulties.
Passive It is said that the company is in difficulties.
2 Active They decided to appoint a new manager.
Passive It was decided to appoint a new manager.



We use get in the passive instead of be
1 sometimes in informal English, especially to talk.
2 In certain expressions, e.g. get dressed, get washed, get lost, get married.





Form

1 have + object + past participle
2 get + object + past participle.
Have and get can have a continuous form (I’m having/getting it cut), and questions and
negatives are with do (Did you have/get it
cleaned?).
For e.g. I had decorated this room 3.6 the past perfect tense.
For e.g. We decorated this room ourselves 20.9

Use

I had/I got the car repaired = I asked someone to repair the car (and they repaired it).
get is a little more informal then have.




We can use it and the passive voice.
1 before a clause with that. We can use these verbs: say, think, feel, believe, know, expect, suppose, report, agree, decide, arrange.
2 Before an infinitive. We can use these verbs :
Agree, decide, arrange.

20.2 uses of it.
11 if-clauses

11.1 The main types of if-clause

1 Type 1 : if + the simple present tense,
+ will, can or may/might
Probable actions in the future
If you leave before ten, you’ll catch the train.
If you don’t hurry, you might miss it.
That bowl will break if you drop it.
I can get some more milk if there isn’t enough.

2 Type 2 : If + the simple past tense,
+ would, could or might.
a Less probable actions in the future
If we saved £500, we’d have enough for a holiday next year.
We might save enough if you worked overtime.
b. Unreal actions in the present.
If we were rich, I’d travel round the world.
We could buy a new car if you didn’t spend so much on clothes.
3 Types 3 : if + the past perfect tense,
+ would have, could have or might have.

Impossible actions in the past
If it had rained yesterday, there wouldn’t have been many people there.
If I hadn’t been ill, I could have gone yesterday.
I might have brought some trousers if I’d seen some.
Peter would have rung if there’d been anything wrong.









1 We use Type 1 to talk about future situations that the speaker thinks are probable. If you leave before ten means that it is quite probable that you will leave before ten.
2a We use Type 2 to talk about future situations that the speaker thinks are possible but not very probable. If we saved £500 means that it is possible that we will save £500 but not very probable.
b We also use Type 2 to talk about unreal situations in the present. If we were rich means that we are not rich.
c We use Type 3 to talk about past situations that didn’t happen. If It had rained means that it did not rain.

Types 1-3

The if-clause can come before or after the main clause. We often put a comma when the if-clause comes first.

Note ‘d is the short form of had and of would. If you’d asked me. I’d have told you = if you had asked me, I would have told you.

31.7,9 warnings and threats








11.2 Other types of if-clause

1 If + present tense, + the imperative
If it’s raining, take a coat.
Don’t wear those shoes if you want to go walking.

2 If + the simple present tense,
+ the simple present tense
If you mix blue and yellow, you get green.
If the temperature falls below zero, water freezes.

3 If + the present continuous/present perfect tense, + a modal verb
If you’re planning a holiday, I’ll tell you about ours.
If you haven’t been to Wales, you ought to go there.

4 If + a modal verb, + a modal verb
If you can’t find a cup, there might be one in the cupboard
Well, David can’t use this kitchen if he won’t wash up.

5 If + will/would, + a modal verb
If you’ll give me your address, I can send you the information.
If you would kindly wait a moment, please,
Mr. Barnes won’t be long.

6 If + should, + a modal verb/the imperative
I think is going to be a nice, but if it should rain, we can have the meal inside.
I’ll probably arrive on time, but if I should be late, please don’t wait for me.





1 To give orders etc, 6.1
2 To talk about things that are always true.
3 Many uses, e.g. offering, giving advice.
4 Many uses, e.g. suggestions, permissions.
5 To make a request. 31.2
6 To talk about future actions which the speaker thinks are not very probable.

For the three main types of if-clause 11.1. There are many other types of if-clause with different verb tenses. These six types here are some of the most usual ones.

























12 Reported speech

12.1 Reporting verbs

1 Statements
Direct speech ‘There’s a game this evening.’
Reported speech Peter says (that) there’s a
game this evening.
There’s a game this evening,
Peter says.
Direct speech ‘It begins at eight o’clock.
Reported speech Jane told me (that) it begins
at eight o’clock.
It begins at eight o’clock, Jane
told me.





2 Questions
Direct speech ‘What time is the game?’
Reported speech Andrew asked me what time
the game was.



















1 say and tell reporting verbs which report statements or thoughts. We also use e.g. mention, explain, answer, agree, write, think, know, be sure. and 12.7
say does not have an indirect object when used as reporting verb. Tell must have an indirect object e.g. me.
The reporting verb (e.g. says) usually comes before the reported clause (e.g. There’s a game this evening), but the reported clause can come first. When the reporting verb come first, we can use that or leave it out. Leaving it out is more informal.
When the reporting verb comes after the reported clause, we cannot use that.

2 Ask is reporting verb which reports questions.
We also use e.g. wonder, enquire, want to know.

12.6 reporting orders and request;
39.3,6 Punctuation













12.2 Reporting in the present tense

Michael is reading Simon’s letter and reporting what he reads to a friend.
‘I’m having a great time in New York.’
Simon says he’s having a great time in New York.
‘My girl-friend likes it her, too.’
He mentions that his girl-friend likes it here, too.
‘We’ll be home next Tuesday’
He says they’ll be home tomorrow.





12.3 Reporting in the past tense [A]

Martin is reporting Barbara’s words to Stephen.
1 ‘We need Stephen.’
Barbara said they need you.
2 ‘I’m starting a pop group.’
She told me she was starting a pop group.
3 ‘I haven’t found anyone who can play the guitar.’
She said she hadn’t found anyone who could play the guitar.
4 ‘I’ll be at the club.’
She told me she’d be at the club.
5 ‘The group is going to meet here.’
She said that the group was going to meet here.
6 ‘I must talk to Stephen.’
She said she had to talk to you.
7 ‘He played in a group once.’
He mentioned that you had played/that you played in a group once.
8 ‘It would be great if he could play in our group.’
She said it would be great if you could play in their group.




When the reporting verb is in the present tense (says, mentions), then the tense of the verb in direct speech (I’m having, likes, ‘ll be) does not change. Sometimes pronouns, adjective and adverbs change in reported speech,
e.g; I he, my his, here there,
next Tuesday tomorrow.
We have to change these words when the situation has changed, e.g. New York is here for Simon but there for Michael because Michael is in England; the day when Simon comes home is next Tuesday for Simon but Tomorrow for Michael because Michael reads the letter on Monday.


If the reporting verb is in the past tense (e.g. said, told), then the verb in direct speech usually changes from the present to the past tense, e.g.

1 need needed
2 am was
3 haven’t hadn’t
4 will would
5 Is was
6 must had to
7 If the verb in direct speech is in the past tense, it either changes to the past perfect tense (e.g. played had played) or it stays the same.
8 would, could, should, might, and ought to stay the same.






12.4 Reporting in the past tense [B]

Paul is reporting Sarah’s words.
‘Horses are my favorite animals.’
Sarah said horses were her favorite animals.
Sarah said horses are her favorite animals.
‘I can ride.’
She told me she could ride.
She told me she can ride.



12.5 Reporting questions

Mrs. Todd is reporting a telephone conversation to her husband.

1 Yes/no questions
‘Is your husband in?’
He asked if you were in.
‘Has he gone to London?’
He wanted to know whether you’d gone to London.

2 Wh-questions
‘Which train did he take?’
He asked me which train you’d taken.
‘When does he usually get home?’
He asked me when you usually got home.












After a reporting verb in the past, there is usually a tense change. 12.3
But sometimes the verb in direct speech stays in same tense if the words are still true when someone reports them, e.g. it is true that horses are still Sarah’s favorite animals.
Even if the words are still true, we can always change the sentence into the past after a past tense reporting verb.





1 We report yes/no questions with if or whether.
2 In wh-questions we use question words (e.g. which, when, what, who and how) both in direct speech and in reported speech.

Verbs in reported questions change in the same way as in reported statements 12.3
The word order in a reported questions is the same as in a direct statement (not a direct question), e.g. you were in, you’d gone to London, you’d taken, you usually got home.












12.6 Reporting orders and requests

1 ‘Take the pills before meals.’
The doctor told me to take the pills before meals.
‘You mustn’t smoke.’
He told me not to smoke.
2 ‘Would you mind not leaving your car here ?.’
Someone asked me not to leave the car here.
3 I was told to take the pills before meals.
You were asked not to leave the car there.
4 The doctor said I must take/I had to take/I was to take the pills before meals.
He said I mustn’t smoke/was not to smoke.
5 ‘Can I have some water please ?.’
A motorist asked me for/asked for some water.
6 He asked if he could have some water.

12.7 Reporting suggestions, advice etc.

Suggestions ‘Let’s go out.’
Tony suggested going out.
Advice ‘You’d better phone the police ’
Mrs. Dell advised me to phone the police.
Warnings ‘Don’t be late.’
I warned you not to be late.
Threats ‘If you don’t go, I’ll call the police.’
I threatened to call the police.
Insisting ‘We simply must take a taxi.’
Mr. and Mrs. Beal insisted on taking a taxi.
Refusals ‘I’m not going to wait any longer.’
Mrs. Jenner refused to wait any longer.
Promises ‘I’ll send you a postcard.’
He promised to send a postcard.
Offers ‘Can I get you a taxi?’
Erick offered to get the visitors a taxi.
Invitations ‘Would you like to have a lunch with us?’
The Updikes invited us to lunch.


1 We report orders ( 31.2) with tell + object + infinitive.
2 We report request ( 31.2) with ask + object + infinitive.
3 The reporting verb can be in the passive. 14.9
4 We can also report orders with a form of must or be to
5 We report a request to have something with ask for.
6 We can also report request which are in question form (e.g. Can I…?) in the same way as other yes/no questions. 12.5






31.4

31.5


31.7

31.9

31.10


32.4

32.5

33.1

33.2
13 Tenses in sub clauses

13.1 Sequence of tenses

Why didn’t you read what notice said?
I thought he was an engineer.
We had already decided to buy the house.
because we liked it so much.



13.2 Sub clauses of future time

We’ll start the meeting when everyone’s here.
If I hear any news, I’ll phone you.
They’re going to give a prize to the first person who finds the answer.


13.3 The unreal present and past

1 Just suppose we had enough money.
(= but we haven’t enough money).
He acts as though he was the boss.
(= but he isn’t the boss).
It’s time we went.
(= but we haven’t gone yet)
2 I wish you’d said something.
(= but you didn’t say anything).
I’d rather we hadn’t come.
(= but we have come).
If we’d booked seats, we’d have been more comfortable.
(= but we didn’t book seats)








If the main verb is in the past tense, then the verb in a sub clause is often in a past tense too.
Even if the words are still true (the notice still says something), we can use a past tense in the sub clause.

12 reported speech



If the main verb has a future meaning, then we use the simple present tense in most sub clauses of future time.

11 If-clauses




1 We use the past tense to talk about the unreal present.
2 We use the past perfect tense to talk about the unreal past.

We can do this after certain words and phrases e.g. suppose, imagine, if, as if, as though, it’s time, wish, if only, would rather.

11 if-clauses; 30.8 having ideas; 34.5 wishing







14 The infinitive

14.1 The infinitive with to and without to

1a Are you ready to go now?
b Don’t forget we’ve bus to catch.
c I don’t want to be late.
d They expect us to arrive at seven.
e Do you know where to go?
2a I must finish this homework.
b Our English teacher makes us work very hard.
c I’d better do it tonight, although I’d rather go out.






14.2 The infinitive after adjectives

1 I’m glad to see you all.
The game was exciting to watch.
2 It would be more interesting to go out.
The Top Club is the easiest to find.
3 This piano is too heavy to move.
I’m not strong enough to lift it.
4 It’s good of you to come.
It was silly of Peter not to tell anyone.


14.3 The infinitive after nouns and pronouns

Have you got a book read?
(= a book you can read)
You’ll need something to eat.
(= something you can eat)
I have some letters to write.
(= letter I must write0



The infinitive is the base form of the verb, e.g. go, catch, be. We use it with to or without to.
1 The infinitive is with to after
a adjective 14.14.2
b nouns 14.3
c verbs 14.4
d verb + object 14.5
e question word 14.11
2 the infinitive is without to after
a modal verb 7.1
b make/let/see/hear + object 14.8; 16.3
c had better 31.5 and would rather 34.6






1 The infinitive after an adjective is with to.
2 We can also use the comparative and superlative of adjectives (e.g. more interesting, easiest).
3 We can also use adjective with too or enough.
4 We can use a phrase with of after adjectives like good, kind nice, helpful, silly, stupid, wrong.






The infinitive after a noun or pronoun is with to.





14.4 The infinitive after verb

I’ve decided to do of course in nursing.
I hope to get a job near here.
I want to find somewhere to live.
I’ve arranged to look at a flat tomorrow.


14.5 The infinitive after verb + object

Andy’s father won’t allow him to use the car.
I persuaded my boos to pay me more money.
No one expected him to win.
Jill’s aunt invited her to stay for the weekend.


14.6 want someone to do something

Do you want me to cook the dinner?
I’d like you to help if you can




14.7 Verb + infinitive with and without a noun phrase

We want to visit the Wilsons. (We visit the Wilson’s.)
I expected to get a letter from them. (I get a letter.)
We want the Wilsons to visit us. (The Wilsons visit us.)
I expected them to write to us. (They write to us.)







For a list of verb + infinitive with to and verbs +
-ing form 16.1






Some other verbs which can have an object and an infinitive with to are; tell, ask ( 12.6), want
( 14.6), warn, advise, remind, teach, force.

14.9 passive



Want and would like can have an object and an infinitive with to.
We cannot use a clause with that after want or would like.






We put noun phrase (e.g. the Wilsons, them) before the infinitive when the subject of the sentence (We want, /expected) is not the same an the subject of the the infinitive.







14.8 The infinitive without to: make and let

The government forced companies to hold down wage increases.
The government made companies hold down wage increases.
They allowed workers to have only a 5% increase.
They let worker have only a 5% increase.


14.9 The infinitive after the passive

The gunman forced the cashier to hand over the money.
The cashier was forced to hand over the money.
The teachers made everyone take the exam.
Everyone was made to take the exam.
The manager let Mr. Jones leave early.
Mr. Jones was allowed to leave early.


14.10 For + noun phrase + infinitive

1 It was easy for the player to kick the ball into the empty goal.
(= The player easily kicked the ball into the empty goal.)
2 It was a mistake for Helen to marry Bob.
(= Helen married Bob, which was a mistake.)
3 We are still waiting for them to reply.
(= They have not replied yet.)









The verb force and allow + object have the infinitive with to. 14.5
The verbs make (= force) and let (= allow) + object have the infinitive without to.

16.3 after see, hear etc.




After the passive verb the infinitive is always with to.
We can also use these verbs in the passive: tell, ask ( 12.6), warn, advise, teach, persuade, expect, invite.
We do not use the verb let in the passive. We use allow instead.




We use for + noun phrase + infinitive after
1 an adjective, e.g. easy, important
2 a noun phrase, e.g. a mistake, a good idea
3 a verb which usually has for after it, e.g. wait for












14.11 The infinitive after question words

I don’t know how to open this bottle.
(= how I can open this bottle)
Can you tell me where to buy a ticket?
(= where I can buy a ticket)
Do you know what you say?
(= what you should say)
I’ve no idea which bus to take.
(= which bus I must take)
I can’t decide whether to go or not.
(= whether I should go or not)


14.12 Leaving out the verb after to

Did you look round the castle? ~
We wanted to, but we weren’t allowed to.


14.13 Other forms of the infinitives

1 Continuous infinitive
Those men seem to be repairing the road.
They oughtn’t to be making so much noise on a Sunday.

2 Perfect infinitive
I should like to have gone for a walk, but it’s been raining.
We ought to have spent our holiday somewhere warmer.

3 passive infinitive
I’m going to be interviewed next week.
I hope to be offered a job.




We can use the infinitive after questions words and after whether.












We can leave out the verb after to if the meaning is clear without it.




Form
1 to be + -ing form
7.14 modal verbs + be + -ing form.
2 to have + -ed form (past participle)
10.5 modal verbs + have + -ed form.
3 to be + -ed form (past participle)
10.5 modal verbs in the passive.










15 The –ing form (verbal noun)

15.1 Introduction to the -ing form

1a Smoking isn’t allowed here.
b I find reading difficult on a bus.
c This is a good place for fishing.
2 Driving a car isn’t as comfortable as travelling by train.



15.2 The –ing form after conjunctions and prepositions

1 After working all evening, John felt tired.
On hearing the news, they left at once.
We like a hot drink before going to bad.
I always have the radio on while doing the housework.
Judy hasn’t found a job since leaving school.
Although feeling tired. David didn’t want to stop.
In spite of trying so hard. I always make mistakes.
2 Can’t you help instead of just standing there?
You won’t pass the exam without doing any work.
You need a special tool for cutting glass.
Jane stayed awake by drinking black coffee.


15.3 The –ing form after verbs

Have you finished writing the letter?
Barry suggested going for a walk.
I don’t mind waiting a few minutes.
We enjoy listening to music.






1 We can use the –ing form as a verbal noun in the same way as we use other noun phrase. We can use it.
A as a subject
B as an object
C after a preposition
2 After an –ing form we can put an object (e.g. a can or an adverb phrase (e.g. by train)
31, 1 orders




The clause with the –ing form can come either before or after the main clause
1 Using the –ing form to express time or contrast is a little formal. In speech we often use a clause with a subject, e.g. after he’d worked all evening, as soon as they heard the news, before we go to
17.2; 27.2 clauses of time; 27.7 clauses of contrast
2 We use the –ing form after instead of without and by even in informal speech.

27.9 clauses of purpose; 25.8 means; 31.4
33.2 what about/how about...?



I or a list of verbs + -ing form and verb infinitive
( 16)





15.4 The –ing form after do
Who’s going to do the cooking?
You ought to do some studying.
I did a bit of shopping this morning.

15.5 The –ing form after verb/adjective + preposition

1 Verb + preposition + -ing form
I’m thinking of buying an electric toothbrush.
My brother’s talking about staring a pop group.
We succeeded in finding the place.
2 Adjective + proposition + -ing form
Sarah’s fond of doing crosswords.
You’re good at drawing.
I’m a postman. I’m used to walking.

15.6 The –ing form with a subject

1 We’ve stopped watching television.
(= We don’t watch television anymore.)
I insist on having a rest.
(= I insist that I have a rest.)
2 We’ve stopped the children watching television.
(= The children don’t watch television any more.)
I insist on you having a rest, Sarah.
(= I insist that you have a rest.)
3 I insist on your having a rest.
I’m afraid of Sarah’s doing too much.)

15.7 The passive –ing form

Visiting people is nicer than being visited.
He was afraid of being seen by the police.
I don’t like the dog being shut up in the house.




We can use do with an –ing form to talk about a job of work, e.g. cleaning, washing, ironing, typing.
17.5 the –ing form after go




1 More examples of verb + preposition which can take an –ing form; agree with, believe in, feel like, insist on, look forward to, take part in, worry about.
26.3 prepositional verbs
2 More examples of adjective + preposition which can take an -ing form; afraid of, bored with, excited about, interested in, keen on, proud of, tired of.
25.12 adjective + preposition



1 When the subject of the sentence (We’ve stopped,
/insist) is the same as the subject of the –ing form, we do not repeat the subject before the –ing form.
2 When the subject of the sentence is not the same as the subject of the –ing form (The children don’t watch television, You have a rest), then we give the –ing form its own subject, too.
3 The subject of the –ing form can be a possessive form (e.g. your, Sarah’s), but usually only if it is a pronoun or a name. A possessive form is more form than e.g. you, Sarah.



Form being + -ed form (past participle)





16 The infinitive and the –ing form

16.1 The infinitive and the –ing form

I wanted to visit England.
I enjoy travelling around.

After some verb we use the infinitive with to
( 14.4), and after some verb we use the –ing
form ( 15.3)
Here are some of the most common verbs of both types

+ the infinitive with to

agree fail plan
arrange forget 16.2 prepare
attempt have 7.4 promise
be 4,8 hope refuse
can afford learn seem
choose manage used 3.11
dare 7.13 need 7.4 want
decide other wish
expect ought 7.6

+ the-ing form

avoid miss
can’t help practise
dislike risk
enjoy stop 16.2
finish suggest
go on and
imagine it’s no fun
keep it’s no good
mind it’s no use
it’s worth


16.2 The infinitive and the –ing form: special cases

1 Mrs. Scott began to eat/began eating her dinner.
She intended to go/intended going our later.
2 I like to have like having tea in front of the television.
I love to read love reading at meal times.
3 I like to go to the doctor every year.
I like to know if there’s anything wrong with me.
4 Dick would like to stay in, but i’d prefer to sit outside.


Note

1 After begin, start, continue and intend, we use either the infinitive or the –ing form.
2 After like, love, prefer and hate, we use either the infinitive or the –ing form 34.3 likes, 34.6 preferences. But see the special use in 3
3 We use an infinitive after like to talk about something a person chooses to do but may not enjoy doing.
4 After would like (- want), would love, would prefer and would hate, we use the infinitive.
34.5 wishes; 34.6 preferences











5 He remembered to bring the drinks.
He didn’t forget to bring the drink
6 I remember having a picnic here years ago.
I’ll never forget having a picnic here years ago.
7 I’ll trying to get brown in the sun.
8 Why don’t you try putting some cream on your back?
9 I stopped to get some aspirin as. I was driving from the hotel.
10 your tooth will stop hurting if you take two of these.






16.3 The infinitive without to and the –ing form after see, hear etc

1 We saw a group of people. They climbed the hill.
We saw a group of people climb the hill.
(= We saw them do the whole climb to the top.)
We heard a man. He shouted.
We heard a man shout.
(= He shouted once, and we heard the shout.)
2 We saw a group of people. They were climbing the hill.
We saw a group of people climbing the hill.
(= But we did not see them do the whole climb.)
We heard a man. He was shouting.
We heard a man shouting.
(= He shouted a number of times, and we heard some of the shouts.)






5 We use an infinitive after remember or not forget when we remember that we have to do something.
6 We use an –ing form after remember or not forget when we remember something that happened in the past.
7 We use an infinitive after try when try means to make an attempt, to do your best to succeed.
8 We use an –ing form after try when try means to make an experiment, to do something as a test to see if it will succeed.
9 We use an infinitive after stop when someone stops in order to do something. 27.9 clauses of purpose.
10 We use an –ing form after stop to talk about something finishing, something that no longer happens.




1 We use the infinitive without to after verbs of perpection (see, hear etc.) and with watch and listen to to talk about a complete action.
2 We use the –ing form after these verbs to talk about past of an action, but not the whole action from beginning to end.











17 The –ing form and the –ed form (participles)

17.1 The –ing and the –ed form used as adjectives

The men ran out to the waiting car.
There were three people inside the burning house.
The injured man was taken to hospital.
The stolen money was in used notes.
She tried to open the door, but it was locked.


17.2 The –ing form in clauses of time

1a Jane ate her supper while she was sitting in front of the television.
b The heard the telephone and got up to answer it.
2a Jane ate her supper while sitting in front of the television.
b On hearing the telephone, she got up to answer it.
3a Sitting in front of the television, Jane ate her supper.
b Hearing the telephone, she got up to answer it.
c Jane ate her supper sitting in front of the television.

















1 The –ing form (present participle) describes an action (the car was waiting)
2 The –ed form (past participle) describe the result of an action (something had injuried the man).

For e.g. the the car waiting outside 22.11
For the –ed form in the passive 10.1,2



1 To talk about two actions that happen at the same time or that happen one after the other. We can use two clauses.
2 We can replace one of the clauses by –an –ing form aftere a conjunction or preposition 15.2
3a We can use an –ing form without a conjunction of preposition to talk about an actionthat happens at the same time as another action.
B We can also use an –ing form without a conjunction or preposition to talk about an action that happens just before another action. The –ing form comes before the main clause.
C If the actions happen at the same time, the –ing form can come after the main clause.

An –ing form before the main clause is rather formal, and we normally use only in writing.





17.3 The perfect –ing form in clause of time

Compare the use of the past perfect and the –ing form.
1 After she had counted the money, she locked it in a drawer.
2 After counting the money, she locked it in a drawer.
3 Having counted the money, she locked it in a drawer.







17.4 The –ing form and the –ed form in clauses of reason

1a They didn’t know the way, so they soon got lost.
b Not knowing the way, they soon got lost.
2a The plane was delayed by bad weather, so it took off three hours late.
b Delayed by bad weather, the plane took off three hours late.
3a I had got up early, so I felt pretty tired.
b Having got up early, I felt pretty tired.


17.5 The –ing form after go

We go dancing every weekend.
The boys went swimming yesterday.
Are you going sailing again soon?





Form having + -ed form

Use

1 Remember that we use the past perfect tense to talk about the first of two actions in the past. 3.6
2 We can use after + -ing form in the same way.
15.2
3 We can also use the perfect –ing form without after to talk the first of two actions in the past.

The sentences with –ing forms are used much more in writing than in speech.





We can use the –ing form and the –ed form to give a reason. We can use these forms.
1b the –ing form
2b the –ed form (which has a passive meaning)
3b the perfect –ing form 17.3

We use –ing form and –ed form to give a reason more often in writing than in speech.




We can use + -ing form to talk about things we go out to do, especially in our free time, e.g.
walking, climbing, fishing, riding, skating, shopping.

15.4 the –ing form after do

18 Nouns

18.1 Regular plurals of nouns

My coat our coats a bus three buses
A book books a dish some dishes
A dog some dogs
One day two days

18.2 Irregular plurals of nouns

1 a potato some potatoes
a tomato a pound of tomatoes
2 a pony a lot of ponies
the factory both factory
3 a knife the knives [vz]
the shelf the shelves [vz]
4 his mouth their mouths [Ỗz]
a path two paths [Ỗz]
5 a house a lot of house [ziz]
6 her child [‘tjaid] her children [‘tjildrәn]
an ox two oxen
7 a sheep some sheep
an aircraft two aircraft
8 a foot six feet [fi:t]
a tooth teeth [ti:₴]
the goose the geese [gi:s]
a mouse some mice [mais]
the woman the women [‘wimin]
a man two men [men]
a policemen three policemen [m₴n]
(+ postmen, milkmen etc).
9 one penny ten pence/pennies
one person people/person
a fish a lot of fish/three fishes






The regular plural ending is-s/-es.
We use –es after [s], [z], [∫] etc. 38.2
38.1 pronunciation





1 We add –es after o in potato, tomato, hero. But photo, piano, radio have –s (photos, pianos, radios)
2 After a consonant, y change to ies in the plural
38.6, but when y comes after a vowel, the plural is regular, e.g. keys, boys, ways.
3 fand fe change to ves in knife, shelf, wolf, thief, calf, half, wife, life, leaf, loaf. But chief, sliff and roof are regular (chiefs, cliffs, roofs).
4 [ ] becomes [ ] in mouth, path, bath, youth. But birth, death, and month are regular [ ].
5 house [s] becomes houses [ziz].
6 child and ox have a plural in –en.
7 sheep, dear, most names of fish (e.g. salmon, trout) and aircraft, spacecraft and hovercraft have the same singular and plural forms.
8 in some words the vowel changes and there is no -s.
9 ten pence is an amount of money 36.10; ten pennies means ten penny coins.
people is the normal plural; persons is formal.
fish in the normal plural; fishes is less usual. three fishes can mean three different kinds of fish.

18.12 pair nouns; 18.13 nouns with a plural form; 23.10 nationality words


18.3 Direct and indirect object

What did Debbie give her mother/her father?
1a Debbie gave her mother a scarf for Christmas.
B She gave her a scarf.
2a She bought her father some cigars.
B She bought him some cigars.

Who did she give the scarf/the cigars to?
3a She gave the scarf to her mother.
B She gave it to her mother.
C She gave it to her.
4a She bought the cigars for her father.
B She bought them for her father.
C She bought them for him.




18.4 The possessive form of nouns

1 Singular nouns
That’s my brother’s watch.
Whose chair is that? ~ It’s Ben’s.

2 Plural nouns
Is that a girls’ school or a boys’ school?
The Atkinsons’ house is for sale.

3 Irregular plural nouns without –s/-es
The men’s toilets are over there.
There’s a children’s playground in the park.








1,2 The indirect object without to or for comes before the direct object.
3,4 The indirect object with to or for comes after the direct object.
3 We use to with give, hand, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, promise, read, sell, send, show, take, teach, tell and write.
4 We use for with buy, cook, fetch, find, get, leave, make, order, reserve and save.
With bring we can use to or for.

We can use a pronoun
1b,2b instead of an indirect object
3b,4b instead of a direct object
3c,4c instead of both an indirect and direct object

10.6 passive


Form

1 With singular nouns we use an apostrophe + s
2 With plural nouns we put an apostrphe after the s.
3 With irregular plural nouns that do not end in -s/-es we use an apostrophe + s.

We can leave out the noun if the meaning is clear without it, e.g. It’s Ben’s = It’s Ben’s chair.

Use
We use the possessive formj with person to show that something belongs to somebody or that something is for somebody (a girls’ school = a school for girl), but 18.5-7

38.1 pronounciation; 38.6 with -y



18.5 The possessive form in phrase of place

Have you been to the chemist’s?
I’ve been at the Wilsons’ all afternoon.



18.6 The possessive form in phrase of time

I read about the strike in yesterday’s paper.
The workers have lot a week’s wages.
They want five weeks’ holiday.
It’s a 15 minutes’ drive to the factory.








18.7 Of used instead of the possessive form

1 With things
There were people picnicking on the bank of the river.
It was the beginning of the holidays.

2 With people
We could hear the voices of children playing in the water.
I walked in the footprints of the man in front of me.








the chemist’s = the chemist’s shop
the Wilsons’ = the Wilsons’ house/the Wilson family’s house.




yesterday’s paper = the paper that came out
yesterday
a week’s wages = wages for a week
five weeks’ holiday = a holiday that lasts five
weeks.
A 15 minutes’ drive = a distance that we can
Drive in 15 minutes

For 15 minutes drive 37.7





1 We normally use of instead of the possessive form
( 18.4) before the name of a thing. We use it to show that something (e.g. the bank) belongs to or is part of another thing (e.g. the river).
2 We also use of instead of the possessive form with people when the noun has a phrase or clause after it which describes the noun, e.g. children playing in the water.

For the river bank 37.2






18.8 Countable and uncountable nouns

1 Countable nouns
A We need a teapot and some cups. We don’t need spoons.
B Here’s the teapot, and here are our cups.
C There are two cups.

2 Uncountable nouns
A We need some milk and some tea. I don’t take sugar.
B Here’s the milk, and here’s our tea.
C There are two bottles of milk.





18.9 Countable and uncountable nouns: of in phrases of quality

1 Countable nouns 2 Uncountable nouns
a box of matches a bottle of milk
two packets of cigarettes two tins of meat
a kilo of apples half a pound of tea
six pounds of potatoes five litres of oil
a drop of water
two pieces of paper
a bar of chocolate
six loaves of bread

18.10 Uncountable nouns made countable

1 Two cups of tea and one cup of coffee, please.
Two teas and one coffee, please.
2 We had different kind of wine and cheese.
We had different wines and cheeses.



1 teapot, cup and spoon are countable nouns
Countable nouns have a plural form, e.g. cups.
We can say
A a cup, some cups, cups
B the cup, the cups,; my cup, our cups etc.
C two cups, three cups etc.
2 milk, tea and sugar are uncountable nouns.
Uncountable nouns do not have a plural form (but
18.10). We can say
A some milk, milk
B the milk; my milk, your milk etc.
2c We cannot use a number + uncountable noun. To say how much mik, we use a countable noun + of
e.g. two bottles of milk. 18.9

19.2 a/an, the; 20.17 a lot of, many, much




We use a noun (e.g. box, packets) + of
1 with a cuntable noun when it is easier to say how many, e.g. boxes or kilos than you say how many e.g. matches or apples
2 with an uncountable noun (e.g. milk; meat) whenever we need to say how much milk or meat.

20.22 quantifierfs + of




1 We sometimes use uncountable nouns as countable nouns when we are ordering drinks or food.
2 We can also use uncountable nouns as countable nouns when we are talking about a kind of or kinds of wine, cheese, fruit, wool etc.
18.11 Uncountable nouns: information, news advice, work etc.

1 I’ve got some information.
Steven’s heard some exiting news.
Can I give you some advice?
2 I’ve got two pieces of information.
Steven’s heard an exciting bit of news.
Can I give you a piece of advice?
3 We’ve got work to do.
We’ve got a job to do.



18.12 Pair nouns

1 I need some trousers.
My glasses are broken.
These tight are exprensive.
2 I need a pair of trousers.
Luckily’s I’ve got two pairs of glasses.


18.13 Other nouns with a plural form

1 With a plural verb
His clothes werevold and dirty.
The goods are still at the dock.

2 With a singular verb
Mathematics is a difficult subject.
The news is at ten o’clock on ITV.
3 With a plural ar a singular verb
The company’s headquarters is/are in Leeds.
The ceapest means of transport is the bicycle/are the bicycle and the motorcycle.





1 information, news and advice are uncountable nouns. Note the following word, wich are also uncountable.
Furniture, luggage, progress, research, weather, work, homework, housework, travel, money.
2 To make these noun phrases countable, we can use piece or bit + of.
3 Sometimes thereis a countable noun with a similar meaning, e.g. work/a job, travel/a journey. Money/a coin or a note.



1 Pair nouns (e.g. trousers, galasses) are always plural in form.
2 If we want to say how many, we use pair(s) of.

Other pair nouns: pyjamas, shorts, pants, jeans, spectacles, binoculars, scissors, pliers, scales.




Here are some other nouns that have a plural form but no singular form:
1 with a plural verb: riches, thank, content, troops, earnings, savings
2 with a singular verb: measles, politics, athletics, gymnastics
3 with a plural or a singular verb; work (= factory)






18.14 Collective nouns

1 The family has lived here for hundreds of years.
The government isn’t very popular.
2 The family have all gone on holiday.
Manchester United aren’t playing very well.
3 The police are questioning two men.







18.15 Noun phrase of measurement

Five hundred miles is a long way.
£35 seems a lot of money for a shirt.


18.16 Apposition

1 The playwright William Shakespeare was born at Stratford.
2 He was born at Stratford, a small town in the English Midlands.
3 it was a specialy day yesterday for 14-year-old schoolboy Mark Jones.












1 We use the singular form of the verb after a collective noun (e.g. family) if we are thinking of the group as a whole.
2 We use a plural verb if we are thinking of the group as a number of individual people.
3 The verb is always plural after police and cattle.
Other collective nouns: group, gang, club, team, crowd, audience, public, class, committe, army, company; Liperpool, the BBC, Esso and other name of sports tgeams, organizations and companies.



We use the singular form of the verb after a noun phrase of measurement or amount.




We can use two noun phrases one after the other to refer to the same thing. The phrases are in apposition.
1 When the second phrase defines the meaning of the first (e.g. tell us which playwrigt), we do not use a comma.
2 When the second phrase adds extra information about the first but does not define it, we use a comma.
3 the is often left out of the first phrase, especilly in newspaper reports.






19 The articles: a/an and the

19.1 The pronounciation of the articles

a/an the
a song [e] + [s] the song [Ỗz] + [s]
a new bed [e] + [n] the new bed [Ỗe] + [n]
a union [e] + [j] the union [Ỗe] + [j]
an apple [en] + [æ] the apple [Ỗl] + [æ]
an old tin [en] + [æ] the ol tin [Ỗl] + [æ]
an hour [en] + [æ] the hour [Ỗl] + [æ]



19.2 a/an and the

1 There’s a man and some girls in the water.
2a The man is ssimming, but the girls aren’t.
B The sun is shining.
C The beach is empty now.
The water is nice and warm.
3 There’s a hotel in the High Streeet where you can stay.
There’s only one hotel in this town.



















We use a [e] before a consonant sound and an
[en] before a vowel sound.
We use the [Ỗe]before a consonant sound and the
[Ỗl] before a vowel sound.








1 We use a/an only with singular countable nouns.
In the plural we use some. 19.3
a/an = one, a man = one man (but we don’t know which man), a man not mentoid before.
2 We use the with countable nouns (singular and plural) and with uncountable nouns.
We use the
A before nouns already mentioned. The man = the man I have just spoken about.
B before e.g. sun because there is only one sun
C when it is clear that the speaker is talking about one special thing. The beach = this beach I am talking about (we know which beach).
3 We use one, not a/an, when we are interested in number, e.g. one hotel, not two or three.







19.3 a/an and some

Singular nouns.
1a Look, there’s a horse in the field.
b It’s a pony, not a horse.
c A horse is bigger than a pony.

Plural nouns
2 I’m going to buy some apples
b No, let’s get oranges today.
c Well, apples are cheaper at the moment.

Uncountable nouns
3 Would you like some tea?
b Is this tea or coffee?
c I like tea best.










19.4 a/an before jobs, nationalities and beliefs

1 Mr. Malone is a writer and Mrs. Stein is an artist.
2a He’s an Englishman and she’s and American.
B He’s English and she’s American.
3 He’s a Catholic and she’s a Protestant.







1a We use a/an only with singular countable nouns.
an/a means one. 19.2
b We use a/an when we are talking about what something is, e.g. a pony, not a horse.
c We also use e.g. a horse to talk about all horses.
2a With plural nouns we use some, some apples = a number of apples.
b We use a plural noun without some when we are talking about e.g. oranges (and not apples), and we are not interested in how many oranges.
c We also use a plural noun without some to talk aboute.g all apples.
3a We can also use some with uncountable nouns.
b We use an uncountable noun without some when we are talking about e.g. tea (and not coffe); and we are not interested in how much tea.
c We also use an uncountable noun without some to talk about e.g. all tea.

18.8 countable and uncountable nouns;
20.14 some and any






1 We use a/an before a noun saying what a person’s job is. We cannot leave out a/an.
2a We use a/an before a noun of nationility.
b We can also use an adjective to give a person’s nationality. 23.10
3 We use a/an before nouns which say what a person believes in.



19.5 a/an with quite, such and rather

1 The party was quite good.
We had quite a good time.
The story was so funny.
It was such a funny story.
2 The picture is rather nice.
It’s rather a nice picture./a rather nice picture.

19.6 a/an in phrase of price, speed etc.

These apple are forty pence a kilo.
You can only do thirty miles an hour on this road.

19.7 Uncountable nouns with and without the

1 Meat is expensive.
Crime is increasing.
We can learn a lot from history

2 The meat at our supermarket cost a lot.
The crime we read about in the papers is terrible.
This book is about the history of Europe.

19.8 school, prison etc. with and without the

1 School is over at four o’clock.
The man was sent to prison for stealing cars.
Mrs. Lee is in hospital. She’s very ill.
2 The school cost a lot of money to build.
The visitors came out of the prison.
She’s in the new hospital.
3 Judy’s gone to work.
She’s gone to the office.





1 We can use quite and such before a/an but not after it.
2 We can use rather either beforeor after a/an. The meaning is the same.

24.8 adverbs of degree.




In these phrase a/an meanns each or every
24.7 frequency




1 We do not use the before an uncountable noun with a general meaning. Meat = all meat.
2 but we use the before an uncountable noun with a limited meaning, e.g. the meat at our supermarket.





We sometimes leave out the before school, prison, hospital, work, church, college, university, class, court, market, town, home, bed and sea.
1 We leave out the when we are talking about school, prison etc. as an institution, and we are interested in what we use it for.
2 But we use the if we are talking about a school, prison etc. as a building. We must use the if there is a word or phrase describing the noun, e.g. the new hospital.
3 We leave out the before work (= place of work), but we use the before office, factory and shop.
19.9 Phrase of time without the

Years in 1978; after 1984

Seasons Winter begins next week.
It’s nice here in summer.

Months since May; January is often cold.

Special times Easter is in April this year.
of the year Are you going away at Cristmas?

Days on Tuesday; before Friday

Parts of the at midday; at night
day and night

Meals We had eggs for brekafast.
Dinner is at halt past seven.

25.3 prepositions of time; 25.9 by


19.10 Names with and without the

1 People This is Mrs. Orton.
Davids’s here.

2 Continents Have you been to Africa?

3 Countries English is a small country.
I come from Canada.



4 Lakes and Chicago is on Lake Michigan.
mountains. Who first climbed Mount Everest?

5 Rivers, canal and seas






But in the year 1978

Or It’s nice here in the summer.


But The January of 1979 was very cold.

But Do you remember the first Christmas
We spent together?

But on the Tuesday before last

But in the morning; during the afternoon;
in the evening; in the night

But I didn’t like the breakfast we had
this morning






But the Lawsons (= the Lawson family)



But the West indies
from the United States
to the Netherlands
in the USSR

But in the Highland
the Alps

on the River Thames
though the Suez Canal
in the Atlantic Ocean


6 Cities, towns We stayed in New York.
and villages

7 Streets, parks in Oxford Street
and bridges near Piccadilly Circus
through Hyde Park
Tower Bridge


8 Theatres, cinemas, hotels,
museums and galleries




9 Other buildings to Buckingham Palace
outside Westminster Abbey
at Shell-Mex House
near Victoria Station
from Heathrow Airport
10 Phrase with of
But at London University





We do not use the before the names of
1 people
2 continents
3 countries
4 lakes and mountains
6 cities, towns and villages
7 streets, parks and bridges
9 buildings other than hotels, museum etc





But in the Hague


But in the High Street
The Strand, the Mall
The Oxford road (= the road to Oxford)
The Severn Bridge (=the bridge over the River Severn)
But in the morning; during the afternoon;
in the evening; in the night

But I didn’t like the breakfast we had
this morning






But the Lawsons (= the Lawson family)



But the West indies
from the United States
to the Netherlands
in the USSR

But in the Highland
the Alps

on the River Thames
though the Suez Canal
in the Atlantic Ocean






20 Pronouns and quantifiers

20.1 Personal pronouns

Subject forms

1 I’ve got three bags.
2 You need some money
3 What about Philip? Where is he?
4 Where’s Jane? Is she coming?
5 What about the taxi? Where is it?
6 We’re late.
7 Where are the others? Are they coming?



Form

Singular Plural
Subject Object Subject Object
1st person I Me We Us
2nd person you you you you
3rd person he him they them
She her
It it



















Object forms

Help me with the bags, please.
I’ll give you £5.
We’re waiting for him.
This is her now.
I can’t see it.
Can you take us with you?
Tell them to come now.





Use

We use pronouns to talk about the speaker (i, we) or the person we are speaking to (you). We also use them instead of a noun phrase when there is no need to say the full phrase (he,she, it, they).
We use the object form when the pronoun is
1 the direct object.
2 the indirect object 18.3
3 after a preposition
4 the complement of the verb be

We use

1 I/me for a speaker
2 you for the person or the people spoken to
3 he/him to talk about a boy or man or a male animal, especially a pet animal
4 she/her to talk about a girl or woman or a female animal, especially a pet animal
5 it for a thing or an animal. And 20.2,3.
6 we for the speaker and another person of people.
7 they/them for people or things. And 20.3,4.

20.2 Used of it

1 a where’s my watch? Have you seen it?.
b There’s someone at the door.∼ It’s Bob.
2 It’s getting late and it’s still raining.
3 It seems that no one is coming.
4 a It would be silly to go out now.
(=To go out now would be silly).
b It’s strange that they haven’t telephoned.
(=That thjey haven’t telephoned is strange).
5 It was Pamela who wanted to go sailing.
(=Pamela wanted to go sailing).


20.3 it, one, them and some
1 a I’ve got the camera. It’s here.
b I must buy a film. I’ll get one today.
2 a Have you seen these stamps? I like them better than the usual ones.
b I need some stamps. I want some for these letters.
3 a The coffee’s nice. Where did you get it?
b we need some coffee. I’ll get some today.

20.4 A special use of you, one, they and people

1 You can’t do much without money.
2 One can’t do much without money.
3a They’re building a new office block.
b They ought to do something about all this pollution.
c They say he’s a good doctor.
4 People say he’s a good doctor.





We use it
1a to talk about a thing (e.g.my wach)
b to talk about a person when we are saying or ask-ing who the peerson is. It = the person at the door.
2 as subject in sentences about time or the weather
3 as subject before seem, appear and happen
4 as subject when the subject clause (e.g. to go out now, that they haven’t telephoned) comes later in the sentences
5 to emphasize a word or phrase, e.g. Pamela 28.4

5.3 it/there + be; 10.9 it + passive verb + clause


1a the, this, my etc. + singular noun it
b a/an + singular noun one
2a the, these, my etc. + plural noun they/them
b some + plural noun some
3a the, this, my etc. + uncountable noun it
b some + uncountable noun some

19.3 a/an and some; 20.21 quantifiers without a noun



1 We sometimes use you to talk about people in general (= everyone), including the speaker.
2 We also use on e talk about people in general, includingh the speaker. One is more formal than you.
3a We sometimes use they to talk about a group of people if it is not importan to say whoe they are.
b We sometimes use they to talk about the government or people in authority.
c We use they for other people in general.
4 We use people for other people in general.
20.5 Possessive adjective and pronouns

Possessive adjectives
That isn’t my key.
Put your hand in your pocket.
Here’s Jim coat. Give him his coat.
Mary wants her bag.
The house lost its roof inn the strom.
Can we have our records?
Where’s the Arnols’ car? They can’t find their car.

Form

my key mine our records ours
your hands yours
his coat his their car theirs
her hat hers
its roof

We use possessive adjective with a noun and possessive promouns without a noun.


20.6 Possessive adjective + own

Bens’ got his own room now. He doesn’t share with Dick any more.
Why don’t you buy your owwn newspaper?


20.7 of + possessive pronoun

Laura is a friend of mine.
I’ve got some record of hers.






Possessive pronouns
Mine’s here.
My hands are warm, but yours are cold.
It isn’t his. It’s Bill’s
This is here.

We want ours, too.
Theirs is a blue Mini. That green car is the Grays’.

Use

We use possessive adjectives and pronouns to show that something belongs to somebody.
We use possessive adjectives and pronouns with parts of the body (e.g. your hands) and clothes (e.g. your pocket).

Note it’s is a possessive adjective. It’s = it is.

18.4 possessive adjective. It’s = it is.



My own room = the room that belongs to me and not to anyone else

20.11 on my own




A friend of mine = one of my friends





20.8 Reflexive pronouns

I’m teaching myself Italian.
Are you enjoying yourself.
Ernest Hermingway killed himself.
My sister can look after herself.
This kettle switche itself off.
We’ve found ourselves a nice place here.
Can you all help yourselves to sandwiches?
The children are behaving themselves today.













20.9 Emphatic pronouns

We decorated this room ourselves.
The Queen herself visited the town last year.
I’ll do it myself.













Form

myself ourselves
yourself yourselves
himself themselves
herself
itself

The singular pronouns end in –self, e.g. yourself, yourselves.

Use

We use a reflexive pronoun to talk about the same person or thing that we mentioned in the subject ofthe sentence.

Note enjoy yourself = have a good time
help yourself to sandwiches = take some sandwiches
behave yourself = net be silly or naughty



Form

The emphatic pronouns have the same form as the reflexive pronouns. 20.8
The emphatic pronoun had end position (We... ourselves). Or if comes after the noun ohrase it refers to (The Queen herself...)

Use

We use an emphatic pronoun to lay emphasis on a noun phrase, e.g. we, the Queen. We ourselves = we and no one else.
20.11 by my self

20.10 themselves and each other

Both boys hurt themselves when they fell.
(= Each boy hurt myself.)
The two boxers hurt each other.
(= Each boxer hurt the other.)


20.11 on my own and by myself

The old man lives on his own/by himself.
I don’t want to go out on my own/by myself.


20.12 Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns

Demonstrative Demonstrative
Adjectives pronouns
What about this tie here? This is a nice colour.
I like that dress there. That’s cheap.
These shirts are nice, look. These are my size.
Those coats are expensive. Do you like those
over there?


























On my own/by myself = alone, without anyone else.




Form

this that
these those
this and that are singular; these and those are plural.
For this one 20.13

Use

We use this and these to talk about things near the speaker.
We use that and those to talk about things that are futher away from the speaker.








20.13 one and ones

1 After an adjective
Do you want a big bottle or a small one? The big ones cost £1.50.
2 After the
Our house is the one on the corner.
I don’t like these plates as mush as the ones we first looked at.
3 After every
We’ve seen plenty of coats. You’ve looked at every one in the shop.
4 After each
We’ve sixty tickets. Each (one) has a number.
5 After a demonstrative adjective
Which card do you want, this (one) or that (one)?
These (ones) are necer than those (ones).
6 After which
You’ve seen all the suits. Which (one) do you want?
You’ve seen all the shoes. Which (ones) do yo want?
7 one replacing a noun phrase
We’ve got some biscuits. Would you like one?


20.14 some and any

1 I’ve got some money.
There are some oranges at the shop.
2 I haven’t god any food.
Have you got any water?
There aren’t any apples at the shop.
Are there any bananas?
3 Would you like some water? ~ Yes, please.
Can I have some bananas, please?





We use one instead of singular noun (a small bottle a small one).
We use ones instead of a plural noun (the big bottles the big ones).

We use one/ones
1 after an adjective in a noun phrase
2 after the
3 after every 20.15
We can use one/ones (but we can leave it out)
4 after each 20.15
5 after a demonstrative adjective, especially after this and that 20.12
6 after which 21.3
7 We can use one instead of a noun phrase with a/an (a biscuit one). 20.3










1 We use some in positive sentences.
2 We use any in negative sentences and in wuestions. But 20.15
3 We use some in questions when we think the answer will be yes, e.g. in offers and requests.
We use some and with both uncountable nouns (e.g. money) and plural countable nouns (e.g. oranges).
20.21 without a noun; 20.22 + of


20.15 Quesntifiers: every, each and any

1 Thers is a prize-giving every year.
Every pupil has to be there.
2 One pupil from each class gets a prize.
Each prize-winner can choose a book.
3 You can choose any book you like.
Anyone can enter the competition.







20.16 Compounds with every-, some-, any- and no-

1 Everyone/Everybody likes Alan.
Someone/Somebody has left their bag here.
Has anyone/anybody seen Dick?
No one/Nobody told me.
2 Have you got everything?
There’s something in my shoe.
Did you buy anything?
We’ve got nothing to do.
3 I’ve looked everywhere for the key.
It must be somewhere.
I haven’t seen it anywhere.
It’s nowhere here.
4 Dick isn’t here, but everyone else is.
(= all the other people)
There’s something else that I’ve forgotten.
(= another thing)
5 Is there anything interesting on television?
There’s nowhere nice to go for a walk here.




1 We use every to talk about what the speaker sees as alarge indefinite number of people or things. Every pupil = all the pupils.
2 We use each to talk about the individual people or things in a group. The group has a define (and often small) number. 20.23
3 We use any to talk about one person or thing (but it doesn’t matter which one) from a large indefinitie number. any book = it doesn’t matter which book; any book you like.
When any has this meaning, it is stressed.
Compuonds with any- can also have tghe same meaning (anyone = it doesn’t matter who).
any is also the negative of some. 20.14



1 We use –one/-body to talk about people.
2 We use –thing to talk about things.
3 We use –where to talk about place.
4 We can use else after these compounds.
5 We can use an adjective after these compounds.

We use any- in negative sentences and questions.
20.14 But 20.15

Note In informal speech Americans sometimes use everyplace, someplace, anyplace and noplace instead of everyehre etc.








20.17 Quesntifiers: a lot of/lots of, many, much, a few, a little

countablenouns

1 a lot of /lots of (a large number)
I’ve got a lot of records
Lots of people came

Many (a large number)
2 How many books have you got?
Have you got many books? a lot of books?
3 I have’nt got many books. a lot of books
4 I’ve got too many stamps
I’ve got as many as I need.

a few (a small number)
5 I’ve only got a few tins


























Uncountable nouns

a lot of/lots of (a large amount)
There’s a lot of bread here
We’ve got lots of time

much (a large amount)
How much beer is there?
Is there much beer? a lot of beer?
That’s too much wine for me.
I’ve got as much as you.

a little (a small amount)
There’s only a little butter.

1 We use a lot of in positive sentences will both countable and uncountable nouns.
2 We usually use many and much in question (but we sometimes use a lot of if we think the answer will be yes)
We use many with countable nouns and much with uncountable nouns.
3 We usually use many and much in negative sentences (but we sometimes use a lot of in informal English).
4 We use many and much after too,as, so and very
5 We use a few with countable nouns and a little will uncountable nouns.







20.18 Quesntifiers: more, most; fewer, fewest; less, least

Countable nouns
more (a large number)
Our team has won more games than your team.

most (the large number)
We’ve won the most games.
(= more games than anyone else)

fewer/less (a smaller number)
You’ve won fewer games/less games than we have.
(= You have’nt won as many games as we have.)

fewest/least (the smaller number)
You’ve won the fewest games/the least games.
(= fewer/less games than anyone else)








20.19 some more, another and other/others

1 some more
Would you like some more sandwiches?
Have some more tea.
2 another
Would you like another sandwich?
Have you got these shoes in another colour?
3 other/others
They crossed to the other side of the road.
Kate’s here, but where are the others?
I like this cheese better than the other?



Uncountable nouns
more (a larger amount)
You’ve got more money than I have.

most (the largest amount)
You ‘ve got the most money.
(= more money than anyone else)

Less (a smaller amount)
I’ve got less money than you have.
(= I haven’t got as much money as you have)

least (the smaller amount)
I’ve got the least money.
(= less money than anyone else)

We use more and most with both countable and uncountable nouns.
With countable nouns we use fewer/fewest (or less/least in informal English).
With uncountable nouns we use less/least.





1 some more = an extra quantity or amount
We use some more with both countable and uncountable nouns.
2 another = an extra one or a different one
We use another with countable nouns.
3 other = different
We use other with both countable and uncountable nouns.

20.20 enough and plenty of

Are there enough chairs for everyone?
I hope we’ve got enough petrol
They took plenty of warm clothes.
Don’t worry We’ve got plenty of time.

20.21 Quesntifiers: without a noun

With plural nouns
I need some potatoes. Can you lend me some?
We haven’t got any in the house.
Have you got any old newspaper? ~
Well, not a lot, but I can give you a few. How
Many do you want?
I’m looking for some pins. There are none in the
Drawer.

With uncountable nouns.
I need some sugar. Can you lend me some? We
Haven’t got any in the house.
Can I borrow some ink? ~ I haven’t got a lot, but I
can give you a little. How much do you want?
I can’t find any oil. There’s none in the garage.

20.22 Quesntifiers + of

With plural nouns
We broke some of the eggs.
A few of my friend are coming round, you’ve met two of them before
One of the windows was open.

With uncountable or singular nouns.
Try a little of this cheese.
None of this wood is any use.
I saw some of the programme, but I missed a lot of it.



We use enough and plenty of with both countable and uncountable nouns.
Plenty of = more than enough




We can leave out a noun after a quantifier when the meaning is clear wihout it.
For no and none 20.23















We use of when we talk about a quantity (e.g. some) which is part af a definite and limited quantity, e.g. the eggs (in this box), my friends

20.17 a lot of; 20.23






20.23 all, most, both, either, neither, each, half and no/none

1a All parties are exciting, I think.
b All the guest/All of the guest are here.
c Those magazines are all old. I’ve read them all/all of them.
d I’ve spent all my money/all of my money.
He’s drunk all this bottle/all of this bottle.
e He’s drunk this whole bottle/the whole of this bottle.







2a Most people like parties.
b Most of the quests were students.
c Bob spends most of his time here.








3a Both windows/Both the windows/Both of the windows are open.
b The windows are both open. I left them both/both of them open.
c Both these plates are broken.








1a all = every 20.15
All + noun (without the) has a general meaning. All parties = every party in the world.
b all the + noun and all of the + noun have a more limited meaning. All (of) the quests = every quest at this party.
c We can use all in mid position ar after an object pronoun.
d We can use all with uncountable and sungular nouns as well as with plural nouns.
We can use it with my, your etc. and with this, that etc.
e We can use whole with a singular noun with the sam meaning as all.

2a most = most than half.
most = more than half
Most people = most people in the word.
b most of the + noun has a more limited meaning.
Most of the quests = most of the quests at this party.
c We can use most with uncountable nouns and singular nouns as well as with plural nouns.
We can use it with my, your etc. and with this, that etc. 24.11 most/mostly

3a We use both to talk about two things or two people.
We can say both + noun, both the + noun or both of the + noun.
b We can use both in mid position or after an object pronoun.
c We can use both with these and those, and with my, your etc.


4a We can go either way, right or left.
b Neither box was big enough.
c I don’t like either of the twins.
Neither of these boxes was/were big enough.







5a Each child/Each of the children had a present.
b The children each had a present. We gave them each/each of them a present.
c These pens cost 60p each.





6a Half the shop/Half of the shops were shut.
b I’ve read half this book/half of this book.
c Half a puond of butter, please.





7a We had no milk and no eggs.
b There’s no telephone in here.
c I wanted some eggs, but there were none at the shops.
d I dropped the eggs, but luckily none of them broke.
e None of my friends live in London.




4a We use either and neither to talk about two things or two people. Either = the one or the other.
b neither has a negative meaning. Neither box was big enough = both boxes were too small.
We can say either/neither + singular noun.
c We can also say either of the/neither of the + plural noun.
We can use these and those and my, your etc.
27.5 giving alternatives


5a We use each to talk about the individual things or people in a group. 20.15
We can say each + singular noun or each of the plural noun.
b We can use each in mid position or after an object pronoun.
c We can use each in end position.


6a We can say hal the + noun or half of the + noun.
b We can use half with singular nouns and uncountable nouns as well as with plural nouns.
We can use it with this, that etc. and with my, your etc.
c We can say half a/an + noun.
24.8 half as an adverb

7a no has a negative meaning. We had no milk = we hadn’t any milk. No is more emphatic than not any.
b We can use no with singular nouns as well as with uncountable and plural nouns.
c We cannot use no + of. We use none instead.
d We cannot use no + of. We use none instead.
e We can use my, your etc. and this, that etc, after non of.


21 Qustion words



21.1 What, who, where, when, why, how and whose



1a What are you doing? ~ I’m looking for something.
b Who told you? ~ Peter.
c Where is the manager? ~ In London.
d When did this happen? ~ Yesterday afternoon.
e Why have you come? ~
Because I want to talk to you.
f How did you get here ?~By car.
g Whose (dog) is that ?~It’s mine.
2 What else would you like? ~ (=what other things)
Who else is coming? ~ (what other people?)


1a what asks about actions or things.
1a what asks about actions or things.
b who asks about people.
c where asks about place.
d when asks about time.
e why asks about reason or purpose.
f how asks about means, manner or degree. Also
( 29.3 introductions, meeting someone.
g whose asks about possession.
2 we can use else after these question words.








21.2 What and who asking about the subject and object


1 Asking about the subject

What’s making that noise? ~
The washing-machine.
Who knows the answer? ~ No one does.
Who invited you? ~ Ben invited me.

2 Asking about the object
What’s David making? ~ A table.
Who do you know here? ~ Well, I know Nicola.
Who did you invite? ~ Oh, a few friends.








1 When what or who asks about the subject, the verb is the same as in a statement, e.g. is making, knows, invited.
2 When what or who asks about the object, an auxiliary or modal verb comes before the subject.
We use a form of do in the simple present or simple past tense.










21.3 who, what and which

1 Who’s your favorite film star?~ Paul Newman.
2a What’s your favorite sport?~ Golf.
b What sport do you like best ?~ I like golf.
c What instruments do you play ? ~
I play the guitar and the violin.
3a Which do you play best, the guitar or the violin?
b Which box are your photos in?~ This one here.
c Which photos/Which ones did you take in Germany? ~ The ones on this page.
Which of these girls/Which one is your friend? ~ The one on the left.



























Form

1. who is always without s noun.
2. what can be.
3. without a noun.
4. with a singular noun.
5. with a plural noun.
6. which can be.
7. without a noun.
8. with a singular noun.
9. with a plural noun. With one/noes (> 20 13) or with of (> 20 22)

Use
1. Who asks about people.
2. What asks about things.
3. Which asks about things or people.

We use who, what or which when there is a number of possible answer to choose from. We use who or what when there is an indefinite (and often very large) number of possible answers.
We use which when there is a limited (and often very small) number of possible answers to choose from.













21.4 Question phrases with what and how

What time did you leave? ~ half past five.
What colour is the carpet? ~ Green.
What kind of/sort of shop is it? ~ it’s a newsagent’s.
I’m hungry. What about you? ~ Yes, me too.
How much is this table? ~ sixty pounds.
How many children have they got? ~ Two, I think.
How old is Mr. Hall? ~ Oh, about forty.
How often do you go out? ~ About once a week.

21.5 Prepositions in question

1 Which office is Pat working in now
Pat is working in the small office now.

Who did you speak to ?

We spoke to the manager.

2 In which office is pat working now?
3 To whom did you speak?
4 What did she wnt you for? ~ Oh, nothing important.
5 What’s she like? ~ She’s very nice.












We use these question phrases to ask about this details of a person, a thing or an action.

20.17 how much/how many











1 In a question we usually put a preposition in th same place as in a statement.
2 In more formal or written English we can put a preposition at the beginning of a question.
3 We use whom instead of who after a preposition. Whom is formal and not often used in spoken English.
4 What…for? = Why?
5 What…like? asks a question that we can answer with an adjective.












22 Relative clauses

22.1 Relative pronouns and relative clauses

1. The boy who comes from Bristol won the game.
The sport that I like watching is tennis.
2. Peter Oates. Who comes from Bristol, won the game.
The first game, which went on for a long time wasn’t very exciting.







22.2 The relative pronouns who and which

1. The girl who works at the café is Martin’s sister.
Is that the café which stays open till ten?
2. Martin is the man who we saw yesterday.
3. Did you see the motor-bike which he bought for




22.3 The relative pronoun that

1. is this the train that stops at Shenfield?
Here’s the newspaper that I found an the seat.
2. Do you know the man that eat next to us yesterday?
The woman that you helped is our neighbor.






A relative clause (e.g. who comes from Bristol)
Begins with a relative pronoun (e.g. who, that) but
22.4, 10, 11
A relative clause comes after a noun phrase e.g. the boy, the sport).
1 Most relative clauses are defining clause, e.g. who comes from Bristol (without commas).
22.12. The relative clause in 22.2-11 are defining clauses.
2 Some relative clause are non-defining clauses. e.g. who comes from Bristol (with commas)
22.12-14



who and which are relative pronouns. We use who with people and which with things.
who and which can be
1 the subject of a relative clause (the girl work at the café. The café stays open tiil ten.)
2 the object of the relative clause (We saw the man yesterday. He bought the motor-bike for £20)






We can use the relative pronoun that instead of who or which.
1 We mostly use that to talk about things
2 We sometimes use that to talk about people, but we use who much more often. 22.2

22.4 Relative clauses without a pronoun : leaving out who, which or that

1 Martin is the man who we saw yesterday.
Martin is the man we saw yesterday.
Did you see the motor-bike which he bought for £20?
Did you see the motor-bike he bought for £20?
2 His sister works in the café that we went to.
His sister works in the café we went to.

22.5 Prepositions in relative clauses









22.6 The relative pronoun whom

1 The woman who they interviewed yesterday has been given the job.
The womwn whom they interviewed yesterday has been given the job.
2 The people who we stayed with are old friends.
The people whom we stayed with are old friends.







We can leave out who, which or that
1 when it is the object of a relative clause (you saw the man yesterday. He bought the motor-bike for £20.)
2 when there is a preposition (We went to the café.)
22.5

We cannot leave out who, which, or that when it is the subject of a relative clause.



In a relative clause we put a preposition in the same place as in a main clause. We do not usually put it before the relative pronoun. But (22.7
We can use a preposition in a relative clause
1 with who or which
2 with that
3 without a pronoun
21.5 prepositions in questions




We use who and whom to talk about people.
We can use whom instead of who
1 when it is the object of the relative clause (they interviewed the woman yesterday.)
2 whwn there is a preposition (we stayed with some old friends.) 22.7

whom is more formal than who and is not often used in spoken English.



22.7 A preposition at the beginning of a relative clause

1 The person who I spoke to earlier isn’t there now.
It’s a problem which we can do very little about .
2 The person to whom I spoke earlier isn’t there now.
It’s a problem about which we can do very little.


22.8 The relative pronoun whose

1 Worker whose wages are low should be paid more.
2 We are a nation whose wealth comes mainly from industry.
3 ‘Lively Lady’ was the horse whose jockey fell
4 That’s the farm whose owner went to Australia







22.9 The relative pronoun what

We’ve found out what we need to know.
You never let me do what I want to do.








1 in a relative clause we usually put a preposition in the same place as in a main clause. This is the normal order in informal spoken English.
22.5
2 In more formal or written English we can put a preposition at the beginning of a relative clause if we put a preposition at the beginning, we use whom or which. We cannot use the relative pronouns who or that after a preposition.




We use whose to talk possession.
Whose can refer to
1 people
2 countries
3 animals
4 things

Note We also use of which to talk about things, e.g. that’s the farm the owner of which went to Australia. In informal speech we often express the meaning in a different way, e.g. The owner of that farm went to Australia.



what we need to know = the thing about we need to know.

27.3 what in clause used as subject or object
28.5 what used for emphasis



22.10 Relative clauses without a pronoun: the infinitive

1 Gary was the firdt person to arrive and the last to leave.
(=…the first person who arrived and the last one who left.)
2 Jill was the only one to remember my birthday.
(=…the only one who remembered…)
3 Your party was the most exciting thing to happen here for months.
(=…the most exciting thing that’s happened here…)

22.11 Relative clauses without a pronoun: the –ing form and the –ed form

1 People wanting to make an enquiry should go to the office.
(= People who want to make an enquiry…)
2 The men building the houses were well paid. (= The men who were building the houses…)
3 New homes offered for sale today are sold very quickly. (= New homes which are offered for sale…)
4 A house bought ten years ago is worth much more today. (= A house which was bought ten years ago…)

22.12 Defining and non-defining relative clauses

1 Defining relative clauses
The man who has worked here for 45 years is retiring next month.
The company he works for is Wilson and Sons.





We can use the infinive instead of a relative pronoun and a verb
1 after the firdt, the second etc. and the next
2 after the only
3 after superlatives










1.2 We can use an –ing form instead of a relative pronoun and an active verb.
3.4 We can use an –ed form instead of a relative pronoun and a passive verb.
The –ing form or the –ed form can replace a verb
1.3 in a present tense or
2.4 in a past tense




1 Most relative clauses are defining clauses. the clause who has worked here for 45 years defines the man (tells us which man)
The defining clause is necessary to understand the meaning of the main clause. There is no pause or comma before a defining relative clause.



2 Non-defining relative clauses
Mr. Rose, who has worked here for 45 years, is retiring next month.
Wilson and sons, for whom he has worked since he was 20, have been in existence since 1823.
The manager (whose wife was also there)
Handed a beautiful old clock to Mr. Rose.
The clock –which cost over £100-was paid for by the people at the factory.
3 compare the use of two main clauses
Mr Rose has worked here for 45 years, and he’s retiring next month.




22.13 why, when and where

1 I’ve forgotten the reason why we went to Bournemouth.
…the reason we went to Bournemouth.
I’ll never forget the day when we arrived there.
…the day we arrived there.
Do you remember the hotel where we stayed?
…the hotel we stayed at?
2 We went in May, when it’s normally quiet.
We stopped at Ashford, where there’s that nice pub by the canal.


22.14 which referring to a wole clause

I was late again this morning, which made my boss angry.
The telephone wasn’t working, which was an awful nuisance



2 Some relative clauses are no-defining clauses, the clauses who has worked here for 45 years adds extra information about Mr. Rose. It does not define Mr Rose-we already know who he is.
We can leave out the non-defining clause and still have a sentence which means something.
There is a comma before and after a non-defining relative clause. The clause is sometimes in brackets or between dashes.
We form non-defining relative clauses with who, whom, whose or which. We do not use that in non-defining clauses.
3 In informal spoken nglish we normally use two main clauses instead of a main clause and a non-defining clause.



1 We can use why, when and where in a defining relative clause. We can leave out why or when.
We can also leave out where, but then we must use a preposition, e.g. the hotel we stayed at.
2 We can form non-defining relative clauses with when and where.
We cannot leave out when and where from a non-defining clause.






We can use which to talk about a whole clause, e.g. I was late again this morning.
These relative clauses with which are non-defining clauses.



23 Adjectives

23.1 Introduction to adjectives

1 We’ve got an old house
I like old houses.
2 This is a nice coat.
This coat is nice.
3 The boys are afraid of the dark.
The driver was still alive.







23.2 The regular comparison of adjectives

1 This radio’s cheep. It’s only £10.
This one’s cheaper than that. It’s only £7.50.
This must be the cheapest one. It’s only £4.75.
2 This us an expensive coat. It’s £80.
I can’t afford a more expensive coat.
This one is the most expensive of all. It’s £120.
3a You’re taller than Bob./than Bob is.
b You’re taller than him./than he is.
4a Which is the longest bridge in the world?
b It’s the most exciting book I’ve ever read.









Form
1 An adjective has the same from in the singular and in the plural, e.g. an old house, old houses.
2 An adjective comes before a noun (a nice coat) or after be (…is nice). And 24.12
3 A few adjective come after be but do not normally come before a noun. Examples: afraid, alive, alone, asleep, awake, ill, well.

Use
An adjective describe (tells us something about) a noun.





1 Short adjective of one syllable (e.g. cheap, tall, nice) take –er in the comparative (cheaper) and –est in the superlative (cheapest). But 23.3
For spelling (e.g. nicer, bigger, happier) 38.3,5,6
2 Longer adjectives of three or more syllables (e, g, expensive, interesting, dangerous ) take more in the comparative ( more expensive) and most in the superlative ( most expensive).

3a. After the comparative form we can use than, After than we can put a noun phrase ( than Bob ) or a noun phrase + verb ( than Bob is ).
b A personal pronoun without a verb after than has the object form ( than him ).
4 After a superlative we often use
a a phrase with a prposition
b a relative clause without a pronoun 22,4

Note on adjectives of two syllables

These adjective usually take –er/-est ( but they can take more/most ):
silly sillier the silliest
simple simpler the simplest
clever cleverer the cleverest
quiet quieter the quietest
Also: funny, dirty etch,: gentle, feeble etc.
Adjectives in –ed usually take more/most, even adjectives of one syllable. Some examples: tired, bored, amused, annoyed, surprised.


23.3 The irregular comparison of adjective

1 Nottingham has some good shops
Sheffield is better for shopping.
The shops in Manchester are best.
2 Thursday is market day. It’s a bad day for parking.
The problem is worse in summer.
Saturday is the worst time of the week.

23.4 Comparison: as… as and so … as

1 The train is just as expensive as the plane. They both cost £85
Unfortunately the news was as bad as we had expected.
2 Today isn’t as cold as yesterday.
Today isn’t so cold as yesterday.
3 Everything is just the same as before, really.







Most other two-syllable adjective take more/most:
careful more careful the most careful
boring more boring the most boring
modern more modern the most modern
correct more correct the most correct
famous more famous the most famous

Also: useful, hopeful etc.; tiring, willing etc.
With these adjectives either –er/-est or more/most is used: polite, stupid, narrow, pleasant, common, handsome.

Form

1 good better the best
2 bad worse the worst

24.14 irregular comparison of adverbs







1 In positive sentences we use as…as to compare two things that are the same in some way.
2 In negative sentences we use either as…as or so…as.
3 We also use as after the same. Compare different from ( 25.12).







23.5 Comparison: less, least

These shoes are expensive. They’re £30.
The black ones are less expensive. They’re £20
These here are the least expensive. They’re £10

23.6 Comparatives with and

The queue of people was getting longer and longer.
I began to feel more and more nervous.

23.7 Comparatives with the

The higher our wages, the better our standard of living.
The smaller a garden is, the easier it is to look after.

23.8 latest, last; nearest, next; further, farther.

1 The M7 is our latest motorway. It was opened only last week.
The M7 will be the last motorway. There’s no money to build any more.
2 There are no garages here. The nearest one is 25 miles away.
You’d better get some petrol at this garage. The next one is 25 miles away.
3 How much further/farther is it to Glasgow?
Let’s hope there are no further problems.





less and least are the opposites of more and most
23.2






We can repeat a comparative after and to talk about a change happening over a period of time.




We use the + comparative to talk about a change in one thing which causes a change in something else





1 latest = newest
2 last = final (but last week = the week before this)
next = the one after this
3 further/farther = longer in distance
further = more









23.9 the + adjective

1 The rich are healthier than the poor.
2 You’ve got to take the good with the bad.





23.10 Nationality words

1a I’ve bought some Italian shoes.
b Can you speak Italian?
c The owner is an Italian.
d Italians/The Italians are very artistic.
2a It’s a Japanese radio.
b I’m trying to learn Japanese.
c A lot of Japanese come here in summer.
d The Japanese sell lots of things to Europe.
3a Was it an English film?
b My English is getting better.
c There was an Englishman opposite me.
d Englishmen/The English love dogs.

















1 We use the + adjective to talk about a whole group of people, e.g. the young, the old, the sick, the unemployed. The rich = rich people.
2 We also use the + adjective to talk about abstract ideas, e.g. the new, the unknown, the absurd.


We can use a nationality word
a as an adjective
b as the of a language
c to talk about a person or a group of people
d to talk about a nation as a whole
1c some of the words for people are nouns with a singular and a plural form, e.g. Italian(s), American (s), Brazilian (s), Swede (s).
2c Some of the words for people are adjectives which we also use as nouns, e.g. Japanese, Chinese, Portuguese, Swiss. They can have a singular or a plural meaning.
3d We can refer to some nations by using either a noun or an adjective, e.g. Englishmen/the English, Irishmen/the Irish, Frenchmen/the French,Spaniards/the Spanish.

We can also use an adjective to refer to people, or nations, e.g. They’re Spanish. She’s a French girl. English people love dogs.
19.4 a/an







24 Adverbs

24.1 Types of adverbs

1 Adverbs of manner 24.5
The children walked home quikly.
They ate their supper hungrilly.

2 Adverbs of place and time 24.6
Mr. Barner is going to have lunch here.
You can speak to him them.

3 Adverbs of frequency 24.7
The Smiths often visit us.
They usually come on Sundays.

4 Adverbs of degree 24.8
I’m very tired.
I had to get up really early.
I almost fell asleep this afternoon.

5 Sentence adverbs 24.9
Maybe I’ll come and see you.
It’ll probably be OK.
I’m not very busy just now, luckily.

6 Prepositional adverbs 26.1
The Browns weren’t in.
(= They weren’t in the house)
The car stopped and a woman got out.
(= A woman got out of the car.)











We use an adverb
1 to say how something happens
2 to say where or when something happens
3 to say how often something happens
4 to make the meaning of an adjective, adverb or verb stronger or weaker
5 to refer to a whole sentence and show what the speaker thinks about the sentence
6 Some adverbs are like prepositions without a noun phrase after them.

























24.2 Adverb forms

1a It’ll be eight o’clock soon.
b Alan is always late.
c He wasn’t so late last week.
d Perhaps he isnb’t coming.
2a We’ll have to walk fast.
b We had to leave early this morning.
3a We’ll have to walk quikly.
b It’s been very warm recently.
b I usually see her at lunc time.
d We’re nearly at the house now.
e It’s a bit further, actually,
4a The woman was friendly. She spoke in a friendly way.
b Rain is likely. It’s probably going to rain.













24.3 Adverb phrases

She tanked us with a smile.
The game is next Saturday.
I see Alex from time to time.
We enjoyed the party very much indeed.
In actual fact, the story was untrue.





1 Some adverb have no special form. These adverb are
a most adverbs of time and place 24.6
b some adverbs of frequency 24.7
c some adverbs of degree 24.8
d some sentence adverbs 24.9
2 Some adverb have the same form as adjectives
These adverbs are
a some adverbs of manner
b some adverb of time
24.10
3 We form some adverbs from an adjective + -ly
These adverb are
a most adverbs of manner 24.5
b some adverbs of time 24.6
c some adverbs of frequency 24.7
d some adverbs of degree 24.8
e most sentence adverbs 24.9
38.3, 6 spelling
4 We cannot form an adverb from an adjective which ends in –ly Instead we can use
a the phrase in a ... way/manner or
b an adverb of similar meaning.
But 24.10 early






An adverb is sometimes a whole phrase, not just one word.




24.4 The position of adverbs

There are three place in the sentence where adverb can come.

1 Front position

Adverb Subject + verb
a Yesterday the team played well
b Ususally I go to the cafe.
c Perhaps I’ll see you latter






2 Mid position

(Auxiliary
or modal
Subject verb) Adverb (verb)

a He slowly opened the door.
I usually go to the cafe.
b I don’t really like fish.
We ‘ve just finished the painting.
c The story is cartainly very exicing.

















1 Front position is at the beginning of the sentence.
These kinds of adverbs go in front position.
a sometimes adverbs or adverb phrases of time and place 24.6
b sometimes adverbs of frquency 24.7
c sometimes sentence adverbs 24.9

28.3 front position for emphasis




2 Mid position is
a before a verb in the simple present or simple past tense
b after the first auxiliary or modal verb in the verb phrase
c after be
These kinds of adverbs go in mid position:
a sometimes adverbs of manner 24.5
adverbs of frequency 24.7
b some adverb of degree 24.8
sometimes a few adverb of time 24.6
c sometimes sentence adverbs 24.9











3 End position

Subject (Direct
+ verb object)
a The talked quietly.
b He opened the door slowly.
c City played well at York yesterday.
d Ben danced a lot with that tall girl.
e I go to the cafe usually.
f I’ll see you later, perhaps.











24.5 Adverb of manner

1 Adjective The journey was very slow.
Adverb We travelled slowly.
2 Adjective Mr. Harris is a careful driver.
Adverb He drives his car very carefully.
3 Adjective The climb up the hill was easy.
Adverb We easily climbed the hill.
4 Adjective The singing was loud.
Adverb The sang loudly/loud.








3 End position is
a after the verb (if there is no direct object)
b after the verb + direct object
Sometimes there is more than one adverb or phrase in the end position.
c The normal order is manner (e.g. well) + place (e.g. at York) + time (e.g. yesterday).
d We often put ashort phrase (e.g. a lot) before a longer phrase (e.g. with that tall girl).
e In end position an adverb of frequency usually comes after an adverb or adverb phrase of place.
f A sentence adverb usually comes at the end of the sentence, sometimes after a comma.
In end positon we put
a,b,c adverb of manner 24.5
c sometimes adverb or adverb phrase of time and place 24.6
d some adverb of degree 24.8
e sometimes adverbs of frequency 24.7
f sometimes sentence adverbs 24.9



1 An adjective (e.g. slow) describes a noun (e.g. journey). An adverb of manner (e.g. slowly) describes a verb (e.g travelled).
An adverb of manner ends in –ly. 38/3, 6 spelling. But the adverb of good is well. And 24.11 high, near etc.
2 An adverb of manner usually comes at the end of a sentence. Do not put it between the verb and the direct object.
3 An adverb of manner sometimes has mid position.
4 In informal English and in American English an adjective is sometimes used instead of an adverb. In British English this happens especially with loud, cheap, slow and quick.


24.6 Place and time

1 At the disco they played my fovourite records.
Yesterday they played my favourite records.
They played my favourite records at the disco.
They played my favourite records yesterday.
2 They played my favourite records at the disco yesterday.
We went there on Saturday evening.
3 Bob will soon be here.
He’s just arrived.


24.7 Adverbs of frequency

1 She always stays in bed on Sunday morning.
Have you ever been to Greece?
I sometimes listen to the news.
2 Sometimes I listen to the news.
I listen to the news sometimes.
Do you come here often?
3 Every August they went on holiday.
You have to pay the rent every week.
I go to the dentist twice a years.

















1 An adverb or adverb phrase of place or of tim e can usually come at the beginning or end of a sentence. Some more examples: here, at home, in the street, over there; afterwards, again, tomorrow, last week.
2 Place normally comes before time in end position.
3 A few adverbs of time can have mid position, e.g. soon, just, already, now, then.

24. 16 yet, still and already



Adverb of frequensy say how often something happens. Some examples: always, often, usually, normally, sometimes, occasionally, ever, never.
1 Adverbs of frequency usually have mid position.
2 sometimes, usually, normally and occasionally can also have front or end position. Often can have end position.
3 Adverb phrase of frequensy with every and with a/an usually have front or end position.
For daily, hourly etc. 24.10

19.6 a/an in phrase of price, speed etc.;
36. once, twice etc










24.8 Adverb of degree

With adjective and adverbs
1 the music was very loud.
Why did it take so long?
The shelf is too high.
2 I’m not tall enough.
3 £25 is very/extremely expensive for a meal.
£15 is rather/pretty/fairly/quite expensive.
£10 is a bit/a little expensive.
4 The food was quite/absolutely excelent.
This bookis completely/totally useless.
5 The stadium was half empty.
I’m ninety-nine per cent certain.

With comparatives
6 You need something a bit/a little bigger than that.
I did it much/a lot more easily the second time.
Is your mother any better today?

With verbs
7 I just love this record.
We almost had an accident.
I completely forgot about it.
8 I didn’t like her first book very much, but I like this one a lot.



24.9 Sentence adverbs

Fortunately the weather was good.
Of course you can come.
We certainly need some help.
Davids will probably be there.
He won’t be there, actually.
He isn’t very well, unfortunately.



An adverb or adverb phrase degree makes the meaning of an adjective, adverb or verb stronger or weaker.
1 An adverb of degree comes before the adjective or adverb it describes.
2 But enough comes after the adjective or adverb it describes.
3 very and extremely make the meaning of an adjective or adverb stronger; rather, pretty, fairly and quite make the meaning a little stronger; a bit and a little make tthe meaning weaker, pretty and a bit are rather informal.
4 We also use quite (and e.g. absolutely, completely, totally) to give emphasis to the meaning when the adjective or adverb already has a very strong meaning, e.g. excellent (= very good), useless, awful, marvellous, perfect, right, wrong, correct, sure, impossible.
5 We sometimes use a fraction or a percentage as an adverb of degree.
6 These adverbs can come before a comparative: mush, a lot, rather, a bit, a little, any, no.
7 An adverbs of degree that describes a verb has mid position, e.g. just, almost, completely, quite, rather.
8 But much, a lot, abit and a little have end position when they describe a verb.



Sentence adverbs show what the speaker thinks about the sentence. Furtunately means that the speaker is pleased about the weather.
Sentence adverb can have front position, mid position or end position.
Some more examples: in fact, really, surely, possibly, maybe, perhaps, naturally, (un)luckily.

24.10 Adverb with the same form as adjective

1 Adjective Mrs. Wells is a hard workedr.
Adverb She work very hard.
Adjective We were early.
Adverb We arrived early.
2 Adjective The daily newspaper arrives at sevven
o’clock.
Adverb The newspaper arrives daily at seven
o’clock.

24.11 high, highly; near, nearly; hard, hardly; late, lately; most, mostly

1 The ballon didn’t go very high.
I’m reading a highly amusing book.
2 They fish came quite near.
I nearly caught one.
3 They worked very hard.
They harly had any time for lunch.
4 We arrived late because of bad weather.
There have been a lot af storms lately.
5 What I hate most about air travel is waiting at airports.
On long journeys I mostly travel by plane.


24.12 Adjective instead of adverbs after feel, look etc.

I feel hungry.
The garden looked very nice.
This pudding tastes delicious.







1 hard and early are both adjectives and adverbs.
Other adverbs with the same form as adjectives are fast, high, low, deep, near, late and long. But
24.11
daily, hourly, weekly, monthly and yearly are both adjectives and adverbs. We form them from the nouns day, hour etc.





High, near, hard and late are adverbs with the same form as adjectives. 24.10
most is an adverb with the same form as a quantifier. 20.18
highly, nearly, hardly, lately and mostly are also adverbs, but they have different meanings from high, near etc.
1 highly = very
2 nearly = almost
3 hardly any time = almost no time
4 lately = recently, in the last few days/weeks
5 mostly = mainly, usually





We use an adjective (not an adverb0 when we can use be instead of the verb. I feel hungry means that I am hungry.
We use an adjective after feel, look, taste, smell, sound, seem, appear, become, get (= become) and stay.


24.13 The regular comparison of adverbs

1 Could you say that more slowly, please?
Tom can shoot the most accurately.
2 You’ll just have to get up earlier.
Sarah ran the fastest.
3 Shout a bit louder/more loudly.
You can buy them cheapest/most cheaply at Scott’s.



24.14 The irregular comparison of adverbs

1 Adrian can draw very well.
He can draw better than I can.
He can draw animals best.
2 The team played badly.
They played worse than last week.
Jones playes the worst.
3 Martin can’t swim very far.
You can swim further/farther than Martin.
Sarah can swim the furthest/the farthest.





24.15 Comparison: as...as, less etc.

I can’t do crosswords as quickly as you.
The old man’s son visit him less often nowadays.
They went faster and faster down the hill.
The more you practise, the better you’ll play.






1 Adverbs in –ly form their comparative and superlative with more and most. (But note earlier in 2.)
2 Adverb with the same form as adjective form their comparative and superlatiev with –er and –est.
3 Some adjective can be used instead of adverbs in informal English, e.g. loud, cheap, slow, quick.
24.5




Form

1 well better best
2 badly worse worst
3 far futher/farther furthest/farhest

23.3 irregular comparison of adjective;
23.8 futher/farther









We use as ... as, less etc. with adverbs as well as with adjectives. 23.4-7






24.16 yes, still, already and no longer

1 Has the letter come yet? ~ No, not yet.
We haven’t seen our new neighbours yet.
2a Are you still waiting?
She’s fifteen, but she still takes takes a teddy bear to bed with her.
b The letter still hasn’t come.
3a I’ve already done that exercise.
Have you already had lunch?
b I’ve done that exercise already. It was easy.
Have you had lunch already? It’s only quarter past twelve.
4a Mr. Baker no longer lives here.
b He doesn’t live here any longer/any more.


























1 We use yet to talk about something we are expecting.
We use yet in questions and in negative statements.
2 We use still to talk about something going on longer than we expected.
a in mid position in questions and positive statements.
b after the subject in negative statements
3 We use already to talk about something
happening sooner than we expected.
We use already mainly in posetive statements and in questions.
already comes
a in mid position
b at the end of the sentence if we want to give it more emphasis.
4 We use no longer and any longer/any more to talk about something that has come to an end.
a no longer has a negative meaning. It comes in mid position.
b We use any longer/any more in negative statements. It comes at the end of a sentence.














24.17 only and even

1 The couple only stayed one night at the hotel.
We could only get a cheese sandwich.
2 He’s very active for an 80-year-old. He even plays golf.
I can’t even remember my own telephone number.
3 Some houses haven’t got electricity even today.
4 Only tourists buy these things.
Even the stupidest person could understand it.
5 The only food we could get was a cheese sandwich.
6 The couple stayed only one night at the hotel.
7 This car park is for costumers only.



24.18 only and far

1 Have you been here long?
How far is it to Cambridge?
I won’t stay long.
We didn’t go far.
2 I’ve been waiting a long time.
It’s a long way to the park.
3 The meeting went on so long I missed my bus.
It’s too far to walk.














1 In informal English, only has mid position. It need not come next to the word that it refers to, e.g. one.
2 even also has mid position.
3 even can come before the word it refers to.
4 When only and even refer to the subject, they come before it.
5 We can also use only as an adjective.
6 In rather formal or careful English, only can come before the word or phrase thet it refers to, e.g. one.
7 In official writen English, e.g. on notices, only come after the word or phrase that it refers to, e.g. customers.



1 We normally use the adverbs long and far only in questions and negative statements.
2 We normally use a long time and a long way in positive statements.
3 But we use long and far after too, so and as, even in positive statements.














25 Prepositions

25.2 Preposition of place: at and in

1 Simon was at the bus stop.
2 We live at 23 Bolton Road.
3 We were at the theatre.
(= ... wacthing a play)
The boy are at the swimming-pool.
(= ... swimming or watching the swimmers.)
4 We stopped at a village near Coventry.
5 The Jamesons live at Oxford.



We use at with
1 a position
2 a house or an address
3 a building (e.g. theatre), when are thinking of the activity that takes place there
4 a village or town on a journey
5 a village or town (but in is more usual)


25.3 Presitions of time: at, on and in

at in
at four o’clock in the morning
at breakfast in June
at night in summer
at Christmas in 1985
at the weekend
at the time No preposition
Is there a meeting this week?
on I’ll see you next Tuesday.
on Friday(s) We went there last year.
on Tuesday morning
on may 21st
on the next day



1 Susan was in the garden.
2 We live in Bolton Road.
3 It was dark in the theatre.
(= ... inside the thetre.)
It was cold in the swimming-pool
(= ... in the water.)
4 There were two shop in the village.
5 The Jamesons live in Oxford.
6 They’re on holiday in Spain.


We use in (= inside) with
1 something big enough to be all around a person
2 a road or street
3 a building or other large space
4 a village
5 a town or city
6 a country





In informal American English the preposition is also left out in e.g. He’ll be back Saturday.

19.9 phrase of time without the








25.4 Presitions of time: before, during and after

The post office is very busy before Christmas.
I’m always out at work during the day.
We had to take a taxi home after the party.


25.5 Presitions of time: till/untill and by

1 My mother’s staying with us till Friday/until Friday.
2 Can you give me the money by the weekend?
.

25.6 Presitions of time: from...to/till/until

The sale was from December 28th to January 3rd.
The shop is open from nine till five thirty.
It will be closed from tomorrow until next Tuesday.


25.7 Presitions of time: for, since and in; the adverb ago

1 I’ve only had this watch (for) six months.
Dick’s going to France for a year.
2 I’ve only had this watch since March.
I haven’t seen Julia since March.
3 I bought this watch six months ago.
Shakespeare was born over four hundred years ago.
4a Dick will be leaving for France in two days.
b He ran the mile in 3 minutes 55 seconds.






We can also use before and after as conjunctions.
15.2; 27.2
during is a preposition; while is a conjunction with the smae meaning. 15.2; 27.2




1 till Friday/until Friday = form now to Friday.
till is more informal than until.
2 by the weekend = not later than the weekend.
27.2 till/until as a conjunction



We use from ... to/till/until to talk about the beginning and end of a period of time.
Americans use from ... through, e.g. It will be closed from tomorrow through next Tuesday.




1 We use for with a period of time, e.g. six months.
We can sometimes leave out for.
2 We use since with a point of time, e.g. March.
since March = from March to now.
3 We use ago for past time measured from the present. six months ago = six months before now.
4 We use in to talk about
a a point of future time meansured from the present. in two days = two days from now.
b a period of time needed to do something.
15.2; 27.2 since as a conjunction
25.8 Means: with and by

1 The thief opened the door with a key.
2 He got in by using a key.


25.9 Means of transport and communication: by

1a Did you go by train or by air?
b We went on foot./We walked.
2 We can let them know by telegram.



25.10 Describing: with and in

1 Police are looking for a tall man with fair hair.
It’s the house with the green door.
2 Who’s that woman in the red dress?
She had a red dress on/was wearing a red dress.


25.11 as and like

1 Trevor is working as a disc jockey.
I use this room as my office.
2 He talks like a disc jockey.
She’s just like her mother.


25.11 adjective + preposition

I’m afraid of the dog.
He’s very different from his brother.
Are you ready for a walk?



1 We use with + noun phrase to talk about means.
But 25.9
2 We use by + -ing form.




1a We use by + noun (without the) to talk about means of transport, e.g. by train, by air, by bus, by car, by sea, by boat. (We can also say on the train, on the plane, on the bus, on my bike and in the car.)
b But we say on foot or we use the verb walk
2 We also use by for means of communication, e.g. by telegram, by letter, by telephone.


1 In descriptions with means having. a man with fair hair = a man whos has fair hair.
2 We can use in or have (got) ... on to talk about clothes.




1 We use as to say what someone’s job is or what something is used for.
2 We use like to compare two things that are the same or similar in some way.
23.4 as ... as



Some more examples of adjective + preposition: bored with, fed up with, fond of, good at, interested in, keep on, tired of, worried about.

26 Verbs with adverbs and prepositions

26.1 Verbs with adverbs (phrasal verbs)

1 We went away for two weeks. We only came back yesterday.
2 I’m sure I wrote down the address, but I think I threw away the piece of paper.
3 The plan didn’t come off I’m afraid it fell through.
4 Mr Gray doesn’t want to give up smoking, but he’s cutting down the number of cigarettes he smokes.









26.2 Phrasal verbs with an object

1 The young people picked up the litter. A lorry took away all the bottles.
2 The young people picked the litter up A lorry took all the bottles away.
3 The young people picked up the litter left by the crowd.
A lorry took away all the bottles they found.
4 What about the litter? ~
The young people picked it up.
Who took the bottles? ~ A lorry took them away.




A phrasal verb is a verb + adverb ,e.g. go away
1.2 Sometimes the meaning of a phrasal verb is clear from the meaning of the verb and adverb ,e.g. go away, come back, write down, throw away.
3.4 Sometimes the verb + adverb has a special meaning, e.g. here come off (= succeed), fall through (= not succeed), give up (= stop), cut down (= reduce).
1.3 These phrasal verbs have no object.
2.4 These phrasal verbs have an object, e.g. wrote down the address.

Some other examples of phrasal verbs: blow up, call off, carry on, fall down, find out, get up, go away, make up, pick up, put down, put up, set off, sit down, take off, wash up, work out.





If the object of a phrasal verb is a noun, the adverb can come
1 before the object or
2 after it.
3 If the object is very long (e.g. the litter left by the crowd), then the adverb comes in front of it.
4 If the object is a pronoun, the adverb always comes after it.




26.3 Prepositional verbs

We finally decided on a holiday in Morocco.
We had to wait for the plane.
Can I look at your photos?





26.4 Phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs

1 Phrasal verb
We paid back the money.
We paid the money back.
The money was paid back.

2 Prepositional verb
We paid for the flat.
The flat was paid for.





26.5 Phrasal-prepositional verbs

I say we should do away with this unfair tax.
Let’s hurry up and get on with the job
I hope you won’t go back on your promise now.
Don’t let Mr Barnes in on our secret!
I’m really looking forward to our holiday.
Why do you put up with all this noise?
Watch out for cows in the road along here!




A prepositional verb is a verb + preposition, e.g. decide on.
Some other examples of prepositional verbs: agree with, arrive at, ask for, believe in, belong to, deal with, depend on, hope for, insist on, laugh at, listen to, look after, look for, pay for, send for, talk about.




1 If a phrasal verb has an object, the adverb can come before or after it. ( 26.2
We normally stress the adverb.
Some other examples of prepositional verbs: about, away, back, by, down, in, off, on, out, over, past, round, through, to, under, up.
2 A prepositional verb always has an object. The object comes after the preposition. ( 26.3 We do not normally stress the preposition. Some examples of prepositions In prepositional verbs: about, after, at, for, from, in, into, like, of, off, on, to, with.




A phrasal – prepositional verb is a verb + adverb + preposition, e.g. do away with.









27 Conjunctions and other linking words

27.1 Main clauses and sub clauses

Two main clauses
1 I’ve got a headache, and I feel sick.

Sub clauses (with if, when etc.)
2 We can go if you like.
If you like, we can go.
We’ll go when this film’s over.
When this film’s over, we’ll go.

Reported clauses
3 It said in the paper (that) it finishes at ten.
It finishes at ten, it said in the paper.

Relative clauses
4 The film that came first was awful.
‘Love in the East’, which came first, was awful.




















Conjunctions

1 we join two main clauses together with the conjunctions and, but and or.
2 A sub clause can begin with a conjuction, e.g. if, when, because, so that.
3 A reported clause begins with that or has no conjunction. ( 12.1. for reported questions ( 12.5
4 A relative clause begins with a relative pronoun ( 22.1. But ( 22.4


Order of clauses
2 A sub clause with if, when etc. can come before or after the main clause
3 A reported clause usually comes after the main clause
4 A relative clause comes after the noun it tells us about

Punctuation

For the use of commas with main clauses and sub clauses (39.3

( 13.2 sub clauses of future time







27.2 Clauses of time

When/While/As I was eating my lunch, the fire alarm rang suddenly.
He wanted to have everything ready before the guests arrived.
After/When she had wrapped up the parcel, she took it to the post office.
I came as soon as I heard the news.
We can wait here till/until the rain stops.
We haven’t seen Sue since she came from her holiday.


27.3 Sub clauses with that and with question words

1 With that
The problem is (that) we haven’t got a key.
I forgot (that) he was coming today.
I’m worried (that) you might hurt yourself.
It seems unlikely (that) the experiment will succeed.
That the experiment will succeed seems unlikely.

2 With question words
I’m trying to find out when the concert is.
No one can understand how the accident happened.
Sarah wasn’t sure where she’d put the letter.
What we’re going to do about it is the important question.








Clauses of time can come either before or after the main clause.

( 13.2 sub clause of future; 15.2; 17.2 the –ing form











We can use these sub clauses as subject or object of a sentence, after be, or after an adjective.
1 We can leave out that in informal English except at the beginning of a sentence.
( 12.1 reporting verbs; 20.2 uses of it
2 The word order after a question word is the same as in a statement (not a question).
( 12.5 reported question; 28.5 what used for emphasis









27.4 Clauses with and , too, as well etc.

1 Stephen rides a motor-bike, and he can drive a car (too/as well).
Stephen rides a motor-bike. He can drive a car too/as well.
2 Jenny can’t sing, and she can’t dance either.
Jenny can’t sing. She can’t dance either.
3 The old man couldn’t read or write.
4 Stephen rides a motor-bike. He can also drive a car.
5 David likes modern jazz as well as pop music.
He likes both pop music and modern jazz.
Jean is not only a good singer but also a first-class guitarist.

27.5 Clause with and, too, as well etc.

1 We can buy a coulor television or a black and white one.
2 We can buy either a coulor television or a black and white one.
We can either buy a television or hire one.
There isn’t any sport today on BBC or on ITV/either on BBC or on ITV.
3 Neither BBC nor ITV is/are showing any sport.


27.6 Phrasal verbs and prepositional verbs

America is a rich country, whereas/while India is a poor country.
America is an industrial country. India, on the other hand, is an agricultural country.






1 too and as well usually come at the end of a clause.
2 We use either instead of too in a negative sentence.
3 We normally use or instead of and to link two words or phrases after a negative.
4 also usually has mid position.
5 as well as, both … and and not only … but also are more emphatic.

( 9.1 short additions to statements





1 We use or to talk about an alternative.
2 We can use either and or in a positive or a negative sentence.
3 neither and nor have a negative meaning.

We use either and neither to talk about two things. ( 20.23

( 8.2 alternative questions




on the other hand often has mid position or comes after the subject. It can also have front or end position.




27.7 Clause of contrast: but, though, however etc.

1 Thousands of pupils are leaving school, but there are no jobs for them.
There are no jobs for them, though.
There are, however, no jobs for them.
2 Although/Though/Even though Ann did well at school, she can’t find a job.
Ann can’t find a job in spite of doing well at school.



27.8 Clauses of reason

They didn’t go because it was snowing.
As/Since we were late, we didn’t get any food.





27.9 Clauses of purpose

1 The government puts up taxes to get more money from us.
We need more money in order to build more hospital.
They called a meeting so as to hear everyone’s opinion.
2 I wrote down the address so that I wouldn’t forget it.
3 Schools are for learning.
4 What’s the meeting for? ~
It’s to discuss the new plan.





1 As an adverb, though usually comes at the end of a sentence. though is rather informal.
however often has mid position or comes after the subject. It can also have front or end position.
2 Clauses with although, though and even though and with in spite of + -ing form can come either before or after the main clause.
We can also use in spite of + noun phrase, e.g. She can’t find a job in spite of her exam results.

15.2 the –ing


We can express reason with because, as or since.
We can sometimes use because of + noun phrase instead of clause, e.g. They didn’t go because of the snow.
( 17.4 the –ing form and the –ed form




We can express purpose by using
1 an infinitive after to, in order to or so as to. In order to and so as to are rather formal.
2 a clause with so that. We often use can, could, will, would or needn’t.
3 for + -ing form.
4 We often answer the question What … for?in a sentence with to and the infinitive.



27.10 Clause of result : so, therefore etc.

1 The party wasn’t very good, so I left early.
2 The management refused to increase wages, and the workers therefore went on strike.
3 The club bought two new players, and as a result they began to win more games.
This year’s harvest was very poor. Consequently the price of wheat has gone up dramatically.




27.11 Clauses of result: so/such…(that)…

We laughed so much (that) it hurt.
I was so tired (that) I fell asleep in the taxi.
It was such a lovely day (that) we simply had to go out somewhere.
Tom talks such nonsense (that) no one listens to him any more.




27.12 Clauses of reason

We can stop if you want.
Even if Marcia leaves now, she’ll still be late.
You can’t go in unless you’ve got a ticket.
We have to do the job whether we like it or not.
You can borrow it as long as you give it back.
I don’t mind working overtime provided (that) I’m paid for it.
Take an umbrella in case it rains.



1 (and) so always comes at the beginning of a clause, but it does not normally start a new sentence.
2 therefore often has mid position, but it can have front or end position.
3 as a result and consequently often have front position but they can have mid or end position.

We can use therefore, as a result and consequently in a clause with and (e.g. and as a result…) or in a new sentence (e.g. and as a result…) or in a new sentence (e.g. Consequently…).



We can leave out that in informal speech.











These clauses can come before or after the main clause.
unless = if…not

11. if-clauses




28 Emphasis

28.1 Emphatic stress

The party isn’t on Saturday-it’s on Friday.
Will your German friend be there? ~
He’s Dutch not German.





28.2 The emphatic form of the verb

1 These motorways aren’t necessary. ~
I think they are necessary.
They shouldn’t build them. ~
I think they should build them.
2 People don’t use them.
But people do use them.
You didn’t come on the motorway. ~
I did come on the motorway.


28.3 Emphatic word order

1 ‘Eatwell’ the restaurant was called.
2 The steak was nice, but this pudding I don’t like at all.
3 Slowly the restaurant began to fill up.













When we want to give emphasis to a word or phrase (make it more important), we can speak it with extra stress.
In writing we can underline the word to give it emphasis. In a book the word can be printed differently, as in the examples.




We use the emphatic of the verb to give emphasis to the meaning of a whole sentence.
1 Auxiliary and modal verbs are stressed in the emphatic form.
2 The simple present and simple past tense have an emphatic form with do. The form of do is stressed. 5.1





If we want to give emphasis to a word or phrase, we can put it at the beginning of the clause or sentence. We can do this with.
1 a complement
2 an object
3 an adverb






28.4 it + be used for emphasis

1 It was your wife who told us the news.
2 It was in 1979 that we went to Yugoslavia.
3 It’s Bob I’m looking for, not Mike.
4 It wasn’t me that broke the window.






28.5 what used for emphasis

I need a good sleep.
What I need is a good sleep.
I’m going to go to bed.
What I’m going to do is go to bed.




28.6 Emphatic use of here and there

The bus is late. ~ Here it comes now, look.
Here comes the bus.
Where are the books? ~ There they are.
There are the books, over there.











1 We can use it + be and a relative clause to give emphasis to a noun phrase, e.g. your wife.
2 We can also use it + be to give emphasis to an adverb or adverb phrase, e.g. in 1979.
3 We can leave out who or that when it is the object preposition. 22.4
4 If we use a pronoun after it + be, we use the object form, e.g. me. 20.1



We can use what + clause + be to give amphasis to a word or phrase, e.g. a good sleep.
what = thing that

22.9 what in relative clauses; 27.3 what in other sub clauses





Form

We can use here or there to begin a sentence, The verb is the present tense of be or a verb in the simple present tense of be or a verb in the simple present tense (usually come or go).
If the subject is a pronoun, it comes before the verb (e.g. Here it comes). If the subject is a phrase with a noun, it comes after the verb (Here comes the bus).

Use
We use here and there at the beginning of a sentence to draw someone’s attention to (= make someone look at) something that we can see.


29 Communication: Starting and finishing a conversation; being friendly

29.1 Starting a conversation with a stranger

Excuse me, could you tell me the time?
I beg your pardon, do you have the time? (USA)

29.2 Introductions

Introducing people
Tony, this is Elaine.
Pamela, meet Andy./have you met Andy?/do you know Andy?
Mrs. Green, I’d like you to meet/let me introduce you to Mr. Bridges. (rather formal)

Meeting someone for the first time
Hello, Andy. ~ Hello, Pamela. (informal)
Hi, Elaine. ~ Hi, Tony. (informal, and especially USA)
How do you do? ~ How do you do? Pleased to meet you. (rather formal)
How are you? ~ How are you? (USA)

29.3 Meeting someone you already know



Greeting someone
Hello, Paul.
Hi, Sue. (informal and especially USA)
Good morning./Good afternoon./Good evening.
(a little more formal than hello)
Morning./Afternoon./Evening.
(leaving out good is less formal)

Being polite
Nice to see you. How are you? ~
Very well, thank you./Fine, thanks. And how are you?/And you? ~ Ok, thanks./Not too bad, thanks.
How’s life?/How are things? (informal)











We use how for a polite enquiry but What… like? for a question about the special qualities of someone or something, e.g. What’s her husband like? ~ Well, he’s a rather quite person.



29.4 Starting a telephone conversation

Saying who you are and who you are calling
Hello. This is Carl./ Carl here./Carl speaking.
Can I speak to Maria?/Is Maria there, please?

Asking who the other person is
Is that Mr Tucker? Is that Asford 73780?
Is this Elanie? (USA)
Who’s spaking?/who am I speaking to, please?

When you think been cut off
Hello? Are you there?


29.5 Saying goodbye

Well, I must be going now./I have to go now. Goodbye, Phil.
(I’ll) see you (later).
Bye!/Bye-bye! (informal)
Cheerio!/So long! (informal)
Good night. (at the end of the day)

29.6 Starting and finishing a letter

Starting a letter
Informal Formal
Dear Brian, Dear Sir,
Dear Mrs Moody, Dear Madam,

Finishing a letter
Informal Formal
Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully,
Sincerely yours, (USA)
Yours (ever),
Love (from),




29.7 Good wishes

Good wishes for success
All the best. Good luck in your new job.
I hope everything goes all right/ goes well for you.
I’d like to wish you every success. (more formal)

Good wishes to a third person
Remember me to Chris./ Regards to Chris./ Love to Chris.

Good wishes for a holiday etc.
Enjoy yourself/yourselves.
Have a good time/holiday/trip/journey.
Look after yourself. Take care on the roads.


Good wishes at special times of the year
Merry Christmas./ Happy Christmas, and a Happy New year.
Have a nice Easter.
Happy birthday./Many happy returns (of the day).

Before drinking
Cheers! (To your very) good health./Here’s to the two of you. There is no special phrase spoken before a meal.




29.8 Compliments
Clothes
I like your coat./That’s a lovely coat./you look nice in that coat. ~
Thank you. It’s nice of you to say so.

Cooking
That was a nice/lovely meal. The steak was delicious. ~
I’m glad you enjoyed it.


29.9 Congratulations and sympathy



Congratulations
I hear you’ve passed your exam. Well done!
Congratulations on passing the exam. ~Thank you.

When someone has been unsuccessful
Bad luck./Hard luck. Never mind. Better luck next time.

Sympathy
My father died last week. ~ Oh, I am sorry.
I was very sorry to hear about your father.



30 Communication :
Information, opinions and ideas


30.1 Asking for information
Excuse me, can you tell me the way to Oxford Street?
Could you tell me what time the next train to Bristol is, please?
Do you know if there are any seats left?
Could you give me some information about things to do here?

30.2 Agreeing with or correcting a statement

Statement Agreeing Correcting
It’s the fifth of May today (, isn’t it?)~ yes, it is. No, it isn’t the sixth.
That’s right It’s the sixth actually.

30.3 Asking about language

When you don’t hear what someone says Asking for a word
Pardon? Could you repeat that, please? What do you call it when water becomes ice? ~
I beg your pardon? We say it ‘freezes’.
I’m sorry, I didn’t catch what you said. What’s the word for the thing you put a letter in? ~
Oh, you mean an ‘envelope’
When you don’t understand
I’m sorry, I don’t understand. Asking about pronunciation and spelling
What do you mean? How do you pronounce this word?
I’m not with you. (informal) How do you say that?
How do you spell ‘sincerely’?
Asking the meaning of aword How is it spelt?
What’s ‘cider’? ~ It’s a drink made from apples.
What does ‘annually’ mean? ~ It means ‘every year’.
What’s the meaning of the word ‘library’? ~
A library is a place you can borrow books from.






30.4 Explanations

Asking for an explanation


Why won’t they serve me?
Could you explain why they won’t give me a drink?
Could someone please tell me what’s happening?
I don’t understand why we have to go.
I just don’t see why the pub has to close now.

Giving an explanation
The reason is that it’s eleven o’clock.
Well, the thing is, pubs can only open till eleven.
It’s like this, you see. There’s a law which says…

Saying that you understand
Oh, I see.
I understand now, thank you.


30.5 Being sure and unsure

Being sure
I’m sure/I’m certain/I know there’s a bank in this street.
There’ll be one here./There must be one here. ( 7.10
There’s certainly/definitely one in the next street.
Being less sure
It’s probably that way.
I think/I should think/I belive we have to turn right here.
I don’t think/I doubt if we should go left.
I suppose/I expect that’s the road to the village.
Being unsure
Maybe/perhaps we can go straight on.
That may/might/could be the road to the village. ( 7.7,8
Not knowing
I don’t know/I’m not sure/I’ve no idea/I wouldn’t like to say how far it is to the village.

30.6 Prediction

Brazil will win the word cup, ( 4.1
West Germany have a good team. I think they ‘re going to win.( 4.3
I bet/I expect it’ll be excating.
I guess a south American country will win. (USA)
The Italians are sure to do well/are bound to do well.
I’m sure the Italian are going to do well.

30.7 Opinions

Asking for an opinion ( 35.1 approving and disapproving
What do you think about the strike?
What’s your opinion of the workers’ action?
Do you agree with/are you in favour of the
Workers getting more money?

Giving an opinion
Well, personally, I think/I believe/I(‘d) say/I feel
they should go back to work.
I don’t think they should be on strike.
As far as I can see,/As far as I’m concerned,/it
Seems to me/in my opinion, the workers are badly paid.
I’m convinced the workers are right. (emphatic)

Agreeing with an opinion]
I (quite) agree./That’s right./Quite./Exactly./of course.

Disagreeing whit an opinion
I don’t agree/I disagree.
I wouldn’t say that./I’m not sure./I wonder./
Do you really think so? (more polite)
But don’t you think …?/well, I think…/but on
the other hand …/yes, but…

30.8 having ideas

Just imagine if there was life on Mars. ( 7.9 would; 13.3 the unreal present
What if the people there could build spaceships?
Supposing they visited the earth?
I wonder what I’d say to a person from Mars.








31 Communication: Telling and asking people to do things


31.1 Orders

Open your mouth, please, Don’t talk. ( 6.1
You must sleep now, you mustn’t talk. ( 7.4






Sometimes we put an order in the form of a request (( 31.2) to make it more polite,
e,g, could you open your mouth, please ?


You ‘re to drink this. You’re not to leave any.
I want you to drink it all. ( 14.6
Fasten seat belts. No smoking. (written)
Ball games are prohibited. (written)
Nurses will wear uniform at all times. (a strict order)

Ordering food and drink
I’ll have the chicken.
A coke for me, please

31.2 Requests

Making a request
Would you mind taking me to the station?
Would you like to wash up?
Would you pass the batter, please?
Will you wait a moment, please?
Could you tell me when the next train is?
Can I have some water, please?
Open the window, would you?/will you?/could
You?/can you (informal)
Passengers are requested to remain in their
Seats (formal)

Would you mind+-ing form is a polite request.
Would and could are rather more polite than
Will and can.
( 11.2 if-clauses















Asking someone to move out of the way
Excuse me. Can I get past?

Agreeing to a request
Ok./All right./yes, of course./sure.
Certainly. (more formal)

Refusing a request
Unfortunately I haven’t time.
I have to go now, actually
I’m sorry, but I’m just going out.
I’m afraid I can’t just at the moment.


31.3 Permission

Asking permission
Can I use your pen?
May I borrow this book, please?
(more formal than can I …?)
Do you mind if I open the window?
Is it all right if we sit here?
( 7.3 can, may, be allowed to






Giving permission
Yes, of course. Go ahead.
Of course you can/you may.
Yes, all right.
Certainly. (more formal)








Refusing permission
No, I’m that’s not possible.
I’m sorry, I’m reading it myself
the momen



31.4 suggestions

Asking for a suggestion
What shall/can we do?
Have you got any ideas/suggestions?

Making a suggestion
Shall we go for a swim?
What about/how about playing cards/a game of cards?
Why don’t we/why not lie in the sun?
Let’s go for a walk (, shall we?)( 6.2
We could go to thepark. ( 7.8

31.5 Advice

Asking for advice
What shall I do?
What should I do/ought I to do about
a job?( 7.6
What would you do in my position?/
if you were me?( 7.9
Could you advise me what to do?
I’d like to ask your advice about a job


Agreeing with a suggestion
Good idea./OK./Fine./yes, let’s do that./yes, why not?

Disagreeing with a suggestion
Well, I was just going to make some coffee.
I don’t want to play cards, actually.
I’m sorry, it’s too hot for me. Let’s go to the club instead.
That would be nice, but I have to meet someone.





Giving advice
I think you ought to/should/had better talk to your parents.
Well, I’d advise you to stay at school.
If were you,/if you ask me, I wouldn’t leave school yet.
The best thing for you to do is talk to your head teacher.

31.6 Telling someone how to do something


Turn left and then take the first turning on the right.
Don’t Touch it until it’s dry.
First you beat the eggs, and then you have to add some sugar.
When you’ve done that, you….
Make sure it’s clean.
You must pull hard.
This is how you do it./You do it like this.



31.7 Warnings


Look out!/Watch out! (warning of immediate danger)
If you are take all those glasses, you’ll drop them.(11.1
Mind those glasses.
Be careful, or there’ll be an accident.

They’re heavy, I’m warning you./I warn you./
let me warn you.

31.8 Reminders

Don’t forget your money./Don’t forget to take your money.
Remember to post the letter.
Make sure your lock the door.

31.9 Threats


Don’t move or I’ll shoot
If you do anything stupid you’ll be sorry.
Any trouble from you and I’ll call the police.


31.10 Insisting


I really must have the money today.
I’m sorry to insist, but I need it today.
I’m afraid I simply can’t wait any longer.
It’s absolutely essential you pay me today.
I insist on having now. (formal)

31.11 Persuading


Why don’t you join the club?~ I don’t want to.
Why not? All your friends go there.
Go on./Come on. You could try it. You might enjoy
It. ~Well, I don’t know. I’ll think about it.
Look, it would be better than doing nothing.
Wouldn’t it? You really must get out sometimes. ~
Oh, all right then. I’ll go next week.

32 Communication: Decisions and intentions

32.1 Decisions

Asking someone to decide Making a decision Changing a decision
What are you going to do? Yes, I’ll buy it. I’ve changed my mind
Have you decided/Have you made up your mind I think I’ll go home now I want this one instead
where you’d like to go this evening?

32.2 Intentions

I’m going to visit the USA next year. ( 4.3 I may go/I might go/I’m thinking of going to
I’ve decided to go there/I’ve decided on the USA Los Angeles. (less sure) ( 7.7
I inted to see as much as I can

32.3 Willingness

Asking if someone is willing
Are you willing to/prepared to work on Sundays?
Would you be willing to/prepared to organize the competition?
Do you mind/Would you mind sleeping on the sofa?

Saying you are willing Saying you are unwilling
I’m perfectly willing to help. I’m not prepared to go to so much trouble.
I’d be prepared to wait a day or two I wouldn’t be willing to do anything dangerous.
I don’t mind/I wouldn’t mind walking.

32.4 Refusing

I won’t put up with rudeness. I refuse to wait any longer. No way!(informal)
I’m not going to pay £1 to go in I’m afraid it’s quite out of the question.(formal)

32.5 Promises

You’ll/You will/You shall get your money back. I promise I’ll do it/I promise to do it tomorrow
I’ll/I will/I shall give it you back by the weekend. I won’t be long, I promise



33 Communication: Offers and invitations

33.1 Offers

Offering to help Accepting an offer
Let me help you. Yes, please. Thank you very much. That’s very kind of you.
Can I carry that suitcase?
I’ll take this bag, (shall I?) Refusing an offer
Shall I do it for you? (of help) No, thank you. It’s all right. I can manage.
Would you like me to get you a taxi? (of food or drink) No, thank you./Not just now, thank you.

Offering e.g. food or drink
Would you like/Will you have/Won’t you
Have something to eat?
(Do) have some tea. (informal)

33.2 Invitations

Giving an invitation Accepting an invitation
Would you like to have dinner with us? That’s very nice of you. Thank you./Yes, fine. I’ll look
Will you have/Won’t you have dinner with us? forward to it.
(Do) come and see us tomorrow. (informal) Yes, that’d be nice/lovely. I’d be delighted to come.
What about coming/How about coming to our
house? (informal) Refusing an invitation
Do you feel like coming/Do you want to Well, that’s very kind of you, but I won’t be here tomorrow.
Come to a party? (informal) I’d love to, but I’m afraid I have some work to do.
Well, thank you very much, but I’m afraid I can’t.
I’m afraid I won’t be here, but thank you all the same.

33.3 Thanks

Thanking someone Answering someone who thanks you
Thanks./Thanks a lot./Thanks very much. (informal) That’s all right/OK
Thank you./Thank you very much. It’s a pleasure./Not at all.?Don’t mention it.
That’s very good/kind/nice of you. Thank you you’re welcome. (mostly USA)
Very much indeed. I’m very grateful to you. (emphatic)
There is often no answer after thank you etc.
In British English.
34 Communication: Feelings

34.1 Exclamations

how + adjective Negative question forms
someone broke into the house while we were away.~ Isn’t it lovely!
Oh, how awful! Wasn’t that fun
How funny that programme was!
Other types of exclamation
what + noun phrase Help!
What a lovely view you’ve got from your house! Hey, you!
What nonsense! Oh, well done!
Oh, what beautiful flowers!

34.2 Being pleased and annoyed

Being pleased Being annoyed
I’ve won £1000.~ That’s good/great. The train is half an hour late. ~
That’s wonderful/marvelous/terrific. (more emphatic) Oh, no!/Oh, dear, What a nuisance!
Oh, hell!/Damn! (swear words)

34.3 Likes and dislikes

Asking about likes Expressing dislike
Do you like that colour? This programme’s not very good/not very interesting
How do you like this picture? It’s terrible/awful. (more emphatic)
What did you think of the film? I don’t like/I dislike/I hate pop music.
I don’t like/I dislike/I hate doing the cleaning.
Expressing likes I can’t bear/I can’t stand that man. (more emphatic)
This place is nice/great/lovely, isn’t it? I can’t bear to sit and do nothing.
I like/I love/I enjoy/I’m fond of the seaside. I’m fed up with this programme/with watching
I like/I love/I enjoy/I’m fond of going to parties this rubbish.
It’s my favourite drink.

( 16.2 the infinitive and the –ing form



34.4 Looking Forward to something

With pleasure Without pleasure
I’m really looking forward to my holiday./to going away I’m not looking forward to the exam at all.
I can’t wait to get on the plane. I’m dreading next Thursday.

34.5 Wishing and hoping

Wishing Hoping
I wish the weather was nicer./it would stop raining. I hope the parcel comes soon.
If only something exciting would happen. Let’s hope it hasn’t got lost
Why can’t/won’t these flies go away?
I’d like to/I’d love to/I want to have a holiday right now.
I’m dying to sit down. I’m dying for a drink. (more emphatic)

( 13.3 the unreal present

34.6 Preferences

Asking about preferences
Would you prefer/Do you prefer tea or coffee?
Would you rather have milk or cream?
Which would you like?

Expressing preference
I’d prefer to go out rather than sit here.
I usually prefer walking to doing nothing,/like walking better than doing nothing.
I’d rather do something than just sit. I’d rather not stay here.
I’d rather you came with me. ( 13.3

Having no preference
I don’t mind/I don’t care what we do. It’s all the same to me.
It doesn’t matter to me where we go.






34.7 Showing surprise and interest

Surprise
I’m going to give up my job. ~ You’re not, are you? ( 8.5
Are you really? ( 9.1
Really? Well, that is a surprise.
Good heavens./Good Lord.
You aren’t going to sell the house, are you? ( 8.5
Aren’t you going to work here any more? ( 8.3

Interest
I’m going to buy a farm, ~ Oh, are you? ( 9.1
Oh, really? That is interesting.
So you’re going to buy a farm, are you? ( 8.5

34.8 Regret

Unfortunately/I’m afraid the car won’t start.
What a pity!/shame!
It’s a pity/shame it happened today.
I’m sorry to say/I regret to say we’re going to miss the show.
I’m sorry not to have seen/I regret not having seen th show.
(regret is more formal)

34.9 Worry

Asking someone what the matter is Expressing relief
What’s the matter?/What’s wrong?/What’s up? I’ve found the passport. ~ Oh, thank goodness
(Is) anything wrong/the matter? for that. That’s a relief
Thank goodness we caught the train.
Being worried
I’m worried about the money.

Telling someone not to worry
Don’t worry./There’s nothing to worry about.
It’s all right./It’s OK./It doesn’t matter.



35 Communication: Right and wrong

35.1 Approving and disapproving

Approving Disapproving
I’m glad/I’m pleased the government are People oughtn’t to drive/shouldn’t drive
Pleasing the tax on petrol big cars ( 7.6
The government are right/It’s right to do it It’s wrong/not right to use so much petrol
They’re doing the right thing. It’s a good idea I don’t approve of/I disapprove of people using
I approve of them making petrol more expensive up so much energy.
I’m in favour of it I’m all for it. (informal) I’m against people driving big cars
( 8.7 opinions

35.2 Blaming someone

The accident was the lorry driver’s fault
I blame the lorry driver. The lorry was to blame.
We bought to have/should have stopped. ( 7.6, 15

35.3 Complaining

I’m afraid I have a complaint to make about the food
I’m sorry to have to say this, but the service isn’t very good.
Look. I really must protest about the condition of my room.
Can’t something be done to stop the noise?

35.4 Apologies

Making an apology Accepting an apology
I’m sorry I’ve damaged your car. That’s all right/OK, as lo0ng as you pay for the damage
I’m very/extremely/awfully/terribly sorry It doesn’t matter.
I beg your pardon Don’t worry Forget it (informal)
I apologize/I do apologize ( 28.2
Please accept my apologies (formal)
Excuse me./Pardon me. (starting or interrupting
conversation, after sneezing, coughing etc.)


36 Numbers, money etc.

36.1 Cardinal numbers

0 nought/zero/oh In British English and comes between the
1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one hundreds and the rest of the number e.g. five
2 two 12 twelve 22 twenty-two hundred and seventy-two. But Americans say five
3 three 13 thirteen 30 thirty hundred seventy-two without and.
4 four 14 fourteen 40 forty In informal English we can say a hundred or a
5 five 15 fifteen 50 fifty thousand etc. instead of one hundred or one
6 six 16 sixteen 60 sixty thousand, but only at the beginning of a number.
7 seven 17 seventeen 70 seventy hundred, thousand, million etc. do not have-s
8 eight 18 eighteen 80 eighty except in indefinite numbers, e.g. there were
9 nine 19 nineteen 90 ninety thousand of people in the stadium.
10 ten 20 twenty 100 a/one hundred one thousand is written 1,000 0r 1000
In British English a billion usually means one
101 a/one hundred and one thousand million, but it can mean one million.
138 a/one hundred and thirty-eight We usually speak the number 0 as nought
572 five hundred and seventy-two (mainly GB) or zero (mainly USA). ( 36.6
1,000 a/one thousand In telephone numbers we say oh. ( 36.9
36,429 thirty-six thousand four hundred and For a/an and one ( 19.2
twenty-nine
1,000,000 a/one million

36.2 exactly, about, over etc


I’ve got exactly £12.69 on me.
(= £12.69, no more and no less)
I’ve read about fifty pages of the book.
(= not exactly fifty, perhaps between forty and sixty)
We’ve had this washing-machine over ten
Years/more than ten years now.
(= perhaps eleven or twelve years)
The job will take at least five days.
(= five days or more)
He earns under £100/less than £100 a week.
(= perhaps £90 or £95)
There are almost/nearly 4 million people without a job in this country.
(= only a few less than 4 million, perhaps 3,900,000)






36.3 Ordinal numbers


1st first 11th eleventh
2nd second 12th twelfth
3rd third 13th thirteenth
20th twentieth
4th fourth 40th fortieth
5th fifth 50th fiftieth
8th eighth 86th eighty-sixth
9th ninth 90th ninetieth
10th tenth 100th hundredth/one hundredth

101st (one) hundred and first
133rd (one) hundred and thirty-third
157th (one) hundred and fifty-sventh
1,000th (one) thousandth
This British runner David Barton came tenth in the race.
They’ve already got five children, and she’s expecting a sixth.
The washing-machine has broken down for the third time this year.
Today’s programme is the (one) hundred and seventy-eigth in the series.
Elizbeth II (‘Elizbeth second’).

( 36.5 fractions; 36.11 dates



36.4 once, twice etc.


I clean my once a day/twice a day/three times a day/four times a day.

We use once, twice etc. to express frequency.
( 24.7
We use times with numbers above two.


36.5 Fractions


½ a/one half half an hour ( 20.23
⅓ a/one third a third of a mile
¾ three quarters three quarters of a pound
⅝ five eighths five eighths of an inch

1½ one and a half one and a half days
3⅔ three and two thirds three and two third metres
5¼ five and a quarter five and a quarter hours


36.6 Decimals


0-5 point five/nought point five zero point five (USA) (=½)
2.33 two point three three (=2⅓)
5.75 five point seven five (=5¾)
6.08 six point oh eight



36.7 Percentages

50% per cent [pa’sent] 2½% two and half per cent 6.25% six point two five per cent

36.8 Sums

16 + 7 = 23 Sixteen and seven is twenty-three.
Sixteen plus seven equals twenty-three.
18 – 5 = 13 Eighteen take away five is thirteen.
Eighteen minus five is thirteen.
3x 9 = 36 Four nines are thirty equals thirteen.
Four times nine is thirty-six.
Four multiplied by nine equals thirty-six.
27 + 3 = 29 Twenty-seven divided by three is/equals nine.

36.9 Telephone numbers

Telephone 0270 53399 oh two seven oh, five three three nine nine
Oh two seven oh, five double three double nine

36.10 Money

1p a penny/one p [pi] 1¢ a/one cent
10p ten pence/ ten p $1 a/one dollar
£1 a pound/one pound $3.75 three (dollar) seventy-five (cents)
£3-75 or £3.75 three pound(s) seventy-five pence
Three pound(s) seventy-five
Three seventy-five

36.11 Dates

23 June/23rd June the twenty-third of June In Britain 1.4.83 = 1st April 1983.
Twenty-third June (USA) In America 1.4.83 = 4th January 1983.
June 23rd/June 23 June the twenty-third
June twenty-third (USA)
1983 nineteen eighty-three


36.12 The time of day

1 7.00 seven o’clock
Seven (informal)
2 8.00 a.m. eight a.m. [e’em]/eight o’clock in the morning
10.00 p.m. ten p.m. [pi’em]/ten o'clock in the evening.
3 7.30 half past seven/seven thirty
Half seven (informal)
7.15 (a) quarter past seven/seven fifteen
7.45 (a) quarter to eight/seven forty five
9.20 twenty (minutes) past nine/nine twenty
9.55 five (minutes) to ten/ten fifty five
1023 twenty-three minutes past ten/ten twenty-three
10.46 fourteen minutes to eleven/ten forty-six
4 16.08 sixteen oh eight
21.00 twenty-one (hundred) hours


36.13 Measurements











































37 Word-building

37.1 Means: with and by

1 The thief opened the door with a key.
2 He got in by using a key.


37.2 Means of transport and communication: by

1a Did you go by train or by air?
b We went on foot./We walked.
2 We can let them know by telegram.

1a Did you go by train or by air?
b We went on foot./We walked.
2 We can let them know by telegram.

1a Did you go by train or by air?
b We went on foot./We walked.
2 We can let them know by telegram.


37.3 Describing: with and in

1 Police are looking for a tall man with fair hair.
It’s the house with the green door.
2 Who’s that woman in the red dress?
She had a red dress on/was wearing a red dress.









1 We can use quite and such before a/an but not after it.
2 We can use rather either beforeor after a/an. The meaning is the same.

24.8 adverbs of degree.




In these phrase a/an meanns each or every
24.7 frequency




1 We do not use the before an uncountable noun with a general meaning. Meat = all meat.
2 but we use the before an uncountable noun with a limited meaning, e.g. the meat at our supermarket.




We sometimes leave out the before school, prison, hospital, work, church, college, university, class, court, market, town, home, bed and sea.
1 We leave out the when we are talking about school, prison etc. as an institution, and we are interested in what we use it for.
2 But we use the if we are talking about a school, prison etc. as a building. We must use the if there is a word or phrase describing the noun, e.g. the new hospital.
3 We leave out the before work (= place of work), but we use the before office, factory and shop.

37.4 as and like

1 Trevor is working as a disc jockey.
I use this room as my office.
2 He talks like a disc jockey.
She’s just like her mother.


37.5 adjective + preposition

I’m afraid of the dog.
He’s very different from his brother.
Are you ready for a walk?























1 We can use quite and such before a/an but not after it.
2 We can use rather either beforeor after a/an. The meaning is the same.

24.8 adverbs of degree.




In these phrase a/an meanns each or every
24.7 frequency




1 We do not use the before an uncountable noun with a general meaning. Meat = all meat.
2 but we use the before an uncountable noun with a limited meaning, e.g. the meat at our supermarket.





We sometimes leave out the before school, prison, hospital, work, church, college, university, class, court, market, town, home, bed and sea.
1 We leave out the when we are talking about school, prison etc. as an institution, and we are interested in what we use it for.
2 But we use the if we are talking about a school, prison etc. as a building. We must use the if there is a word or phrase describing the noun, e.g. the new hospital.
3 We leave out the before work (= place of work), but we use the before office, factory and shop.
37.6 Means: with and by

1 The thief opened the door with a key.
2 He got in by using a key.


37.7 Means of transport and communication: by

1a Did you go by train or by air?
b We went on foot./We walked.
2 We can let them know by telegram.



37.8 Describing: with and in

1 Police are looking for a tall man with fair hair.
It’s the house with the green door.
2 Who’s that woman in the red dress?
She had a red dress on/was wearing a red dress.
















1 We can use quite and such before a/an but not after it.
2 We can use rather either beforeor after a/an. The meaning is the same.

24.8 adverbs of degree.




In these phrase a/an meanns each or every
24.7 frequency




1 We do not use the before an uncountable noun with a general meaning. Meat = all meat.
2 but we use the before an uncountable noun with a limited meaning, e.g. the meat at our supermarket.





We sometimes leave out the before school, prison, hospital, work, church, college, university, class, court, market, town, home, bed and sea.
1 We leave out the when we are talking about school, prison etc. as an institution, and we are interested in what we use it for.
2 But we use the if we are talking about a school, prison etc. as a building. We must use the if there is a word or phrase describing the noun, e.g. the new hospital.
3 We leave out the before work (= place of work), but we use the before office, factory and shop.
38 The pronunciation and spelling of endings

38.1 The pronounciation of –s/-es

1 shop [ps]. 2 sees [i:z] 3 prices [siz]
writes [ts] eyes [aiz] loses [ziz]
Mick’s [ks] jobs [bz] watches [tfiz]
cliffs [fs] beds [dz] Mr. Blish’s [fiz]



38.2 Putting in e before -s

1 dish dishes 2 price prices
box boxes lose loses
watch watches realize realizes


38.3 Leaving out e

1 write writing 3 make makes
like liked nice nicely
Nice niced 4 true trully
fine finest whole wholly
2 agree agreeing/ 5 possible possibly
agreed probable probably


38.4 The pronounciation of -ed

1 stopped [pt] 2 showed [aud] 3 waited [tid]
looked [kt] played [eid] ended [did]
passed [st] cleaned [nd]
laughed [ft] used [zd]







1 -s is [s] after voiceless sound (but see note 3)
2 -s is [z] after the sound (but see note 30.
3 -s/ -es is [iz] after the sound [s], [z], [f], [3], [tf]
and [d3].

2.4 the simple present; 18.1, 2 plurals of nouns.
18.4 the possessive form



1 After the sounds [s], [z], [f], [3], [tf] and [d3] the ending is –es.
2 If the word ends in e, the ending is –s




1 We leave out e before an ending with a vowel, e.g. –ing, -ed, -er, -est.
2 If the e is part of a vowel sound 9e.g. agree0. We do not leave it out before –ing.
3 We do not leave out e before an ending with a consonant, e.g. –s, -ly.
4 But we leave out e form true and whole before –ly.
5 When an adjective ending in –le becomes an adverb, e canges to y.


1 -ed is [t] after voiceless sound (but see note 3)
2 -ed is [d] after voiced sound (but see note 3).
3 -ed is [id] after [t] and [d].


38.5 The doubling of consonants

1 plan planning
stop stopped
big bigger
fat fattest
2 play playing
show showed
clean cleaner
short shortest
3 be’gin beginning
4 ‘visit’ visiting
5 travel travelling






38.6 Cosonant + y

1 lady ladies
fly flies
carry carried
funny funnier
silly silliest
happy happily
2 the secretary’s desk
the secretaries’ desk
3 play played
4 fly flying
5 lie lying








1 In short words with one written vowel (a, i, u, e, o) + one written consonant (n, p, g, t etc), we
Double the consonant (nn, pp, gg, tt) before an ending with a vowel, e.g. –ing, -ed, -er, or –est.
2 We do not double the consonant if it is y or w (e.g. play, show).
We do not double it if we write the vowel with two letters (e.g. clean)
We do not double it if the word ends in two written consonants (e.g. short) or in x.
3 In longer words we double the consonant if the last part of the word is stressed (e.g. be’gin).
4 We do not double the consonant if the last part of the word is unstressed (e.g. ‘visit).
5 But we double / in British English (e.g. GB travelled, USA traveled).





1 In words ending in a consonant (d, l, r, n, p etc.)
+ y, the y canges to ie before –s and to i before
-ed, -er, -est and –ly.
2 In the possessive form we use an apostrophe + s with a singular noun and an apostrophe with a plural noun. 18.4
3 y does not change after a vowel.
4 y does not change before –ing.
5 ie canges to y before –ing.







39 Punctuation

39.1 The sentence

1 We’ll go for a walk now.
But bring your coat.
2 Do you want to go to Hyde Park?
Shall we look at the shops first?
Are they open on Saturdays?
3 Look what I’ve got!
What a fantastic dress!


39.2 The semi-colon

The farmer and his sons start work at six o’clock every morning; thay have to get up early because there is always so much to do.


39.3 The comma

We use a comma to show a shorter pause than a semi-colon (;) or a full stop (.). The rules about commas aren’t very definite. We can often choose whether to put a comma or not.

1 He looked for the key, but he couldn’t find it.
He looked for the key but couldn’t find it.
2a When I saw the photo, I lauged.
b The questions were easy, Alan said.
c Mr. Sims, who lives opposite, is ninety-six.








At the end of a sentence we put
1 a full stop (.) after a statement or imperative
2 a question mark (?) after a question
3 an exclamation mark (!) after an exclamation
We write a capital letter (a big letter)
1 at the beginning of a sentence (e.g. We ... or But...)
2 at the beginning od each word in a name (e.g. Hyde Park) and days and months (e.g. Saturday but not in other nouns (e.g. shops)
3 for the word /



We use a semi-colon (;) between two main clauses when the second main clause is not linked grammatically to the first.









We put a comma
1 ususally between two main clauses before but, and or or, but only if the second clause has a subject (e.g. he)
2a after a sub clause
b after a reported clause
c around a non-defining relative clause 22.12




d I laughed when I saw the photo.
e Alan said (that) the questions were easy.
f We all saw what happened.
g The man who lives opposite is ninety-six.
3 The police came to the house to ask him some questions.
4 On Thursday afternoon, they all went out together.
They all went out together on Thursday afternoon.
5 Mr. Reid, the owner of the company, lives near Southport.
6a The food, however, was good.
b On the order hand, we need a quickly decision.
We could go to Tunisisa, for example.
Actually, I’m a Liberal.
It won’t be easy, of course
c Have you got the number, please? ~ Yes, I have.
7 Have you seen this, Pat?
Dear mr. Bright,
Thank you for your letter...
8 Inside the room there was a table, two chairs, a lamp and a television set.


39.4 Quotation marks

David said, ‘It’s time to go now’
‘It’s time to go now,’ David said./said Davids.



39.5 The apostrophe

1 These are my girl-friend’s records.
2 Chris isn’t thirty. He’s only twenty-five.




d not usually before a sub clauses
e not before a reported clause
f not before a question word or that 27.3
g not with a defining relative clause 22.12
3 not before an infinitive
4 sometimes after an adverb phrase but not usually before it
5 usually arround a phrase in apposition 18.16
6a usually around a linking word
b usually after or before a linking word or sentence adverb
c usually before please and after yes or no
7 before or after the name of a person we are speaking or writing to 29.6
8 in a list of more than two things










We use quotation marks (‘...’) before and after direct speech. We usually put a comma before or after the direct speech.




We use the apostrophe
1 in the possessive form of nouns 18.4
2 in short forms 39.6



39.6 Short forms

1 We’ve had nice wather.
2 This salad’s nice.
3 What’ll you do?
4 There’d be plenty.
5 Here’s Sarah now.
6 They aren’t ready.

Form
When we use the short form, we leave out part of the word we are writing. We put an apostrophe (‘) instead of the missing part and we write the two words together as one.

Short form
‘m = am ‘ve = have won’t = will not
‘re = are ‘d = had/would n’t = not
‘s = is/has ‘ll = will/shall
Sometimes there are alternative short forms, e.g.
It is not it isn’t/it’s not
They will not they won’t/ thwy will note



39.7 The hyphen

1a That’a a police dog.
B I’ve rung the police-station.
C Here’s a policeman.
2 There’s a three-mile-long tunnel.
3 Don’t over-fill the tank.
We can re-use these bottles.





Use

We can use a short form only if the word is unstressed. We do not use short forms in short answers with yes (Yes, we have) or when a word is stressed (We really ‘have had nice weather).
1 After a pronouns
2 sometimes after a noun
3 sometimes after a question word
4 after there and that
5 for is after here
6 for not after an auxiliary or modal verb

We use short forms when we write down an informal conversation or in informal writing, e.g. in a letter or a postcard to a friend.










1 The rules about hyphens aren’t very definite. We write some compound nouns as two words (a), some with a hyphen (b) and some as one word (c).
2 We normally use a hyphen in compound adjectives. 37.6,7
3 We often use a hyphen after a prefix. 37.8

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